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The use of esmolol, nicardipine, or their combination to blunt hemodynamic changes after laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.

Author(s): Atlee JL, Dhamee MS, Olund TL, George V

Affiliation(s): Departments of Anesthesiology and Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53226-3596, USA. jatlee@mcw.edu

Publication date & source: 2000-02, Anesth Analg., 90(2):280-5.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation (LTI) often provoke an undesirable increase in blood pressure (BP) and/or heart rate (HR). We tested the premise that nicardipine (NIC) and esmolol (ESM) in combination (COMB) would oppose both. Adult surgical patients received pretreatment (randomized) with IV bolus NIC 30 microg/kg (n = 31), ESM 1.0 mg/kg (n = 34), or COMB (one-half dose each, n = 32). Peak BP and HR after LTI were compared with controls (CONT; n = 35) with no pretreatment. Anesthetic induction was standardized: IV thiopental (5-7 mg/kg), fentanyl (1-2 microg/kg), and succinylcholine (1.5 mg/kg). Systolic (S), diastolic (D), and mean (M) BP and HR awake before pretreatment (baseline) were similar in all test groups. No patient was treated for hypotension, bradycardia, or tachycardia after pretreatment or anesthetic induction. Peak HR after LTI was increased versus baseline in CONT and all test groups, but did not differ from CONT among the test groups. Peak SBP and DBP increased versus baseline in CONT, and with ESM and NIC, but not COMB. Peak SBP, DBP, and MBP were increased with ESM versus COMB, and peak DBP with ESM versus NIC. Compared with no pretreatment before the IV induction of general anesthesia, the peak increase in BP after LTI is best blunted by the combination of nicardipine and ESM, compared with either drug alone. No single drug or combination in the doses tested opposed increased HR. IMPLICATIONS: Compared with no pretreatment before the IV induction of general anesthesia, the peak increase in blood pressure after laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation is best blunted by the combination of nicardipine and esmolol, compared with either drug alone. No single drug or combination in the doses tested opposed increased heart rate.

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