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Double-blind comparison of pefloxacin and cefazolin as prophylaxis in elective cardiovascular surgery.

Author(s): Auger P, Leclerc Y, Pelletier LC, Blain R, Phillips R

Affiliation(s): Institut de Cardiologie de Montreal, Quebec.

Publication date & source: 1990-10, J Antimicrob Chemother., 26 Suppl B:75-82.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

A total of 162 patients (134 males and 28 females) scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (144) or valve surgery (18) were randomly assigned to receive, under double-blind conditions, either pefloxacin 400 mg iv or cefazolin 1.0 g 30 min before the surgical incision and then post-operatively 12-hourly x 4 or 6-hourly x 8, respectively. Positive per- and post-operative cultures were seen in 27 patients (11 pefloxacin, 16 cefazolin) and 47 micro-organisms were isolated: 34 per-operatively (21 pefloxacin, 13 cefazolin) and 13 post-operatively (4 pefloxacin, 9 cefazolin). There were five failures of prophylaxis (2 pefloxacin, 3 cefazolin): two early (less than 5 days: 1 pefloxacin, 1 cefazolin) and three late (greater than or equal to 5 days, 1 pefloxacin, 2 cefazolin) divided into (i) one major primary failure in the cefazolin group (1 cefazolin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis mediastinitis); (ii) two minor primary failures, one in each group (Gram-positive sternal incision abscesses) and (iii) two secondary failures (1 cefazolin resistant Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UTI in the cefazolin group and one culture negative pneumonia in the pefloxacin group). Tolerance to both antibiotics was excellent. In our sample of patients, the efficacy and safety of pefloxacin was not different from those of cefazolin in prophylaxis in cardiovascular surgery.

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