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Intrathecal clonidine decreases propofol sedation requirements during spinal anesthesia in infants.

Author(s): Batra YK, Rakesh SV, Panda NB, Lokesh VC, Subramanyam R

Affiliation(s): Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. ykbatra@glide.net.in

Publication date & source: 2010-07, Paediatr Anaesth., 20(7):625-32.

Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial

BACKGROUND: Propofol is a popular agent for providing procedural sedation in pediatric population during lumbar puncture and spinal anesthesia. Adjuvants like clonidine and fentanyl are administered intrathecally to prolong the duration of spinal anesthesia and to provide postoperative analgesia. We studied the propofol requirement after intrathecal administration of clonidine or fentanyl in infants undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. METHODS: Sixty-five ASA I infants undergoing elective lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia were assigned into four groups in this prospective randomized double-blinded study. Group B received bupivacaine based on body weight (<5 kg = 0.5 mg kg(-1); 5-10 kg = 0.4 mg kg(-1)). Group BC received 1 microg kg(-1) of clonidine with bupivacaine, group BF received 1 microg kg(-1) of fentanyl with bupivacaine, and patients in group BCF received 1 microg kg(-1) each of clonidine and fentanyl with bupivacaine. A bolus of 2-3 mg kg(-1) of propofol bolus was administered for lumbar puncture. Sedation was assessed using a six-point sedation score (0-5) and a five-point reactivity score (0-4) which was based on a behavioral score. After achieving a sedation and reactivity score of 3-4, the patients were placed lateral in knee chest position and lumbar puncture performed and test drug administered. Further intraoperative sedation was maintained with an infusion of 25-50 microg kg(-1) min(-1) of propofol infusion. RESULTS: The mean +/- SD infusion requirement of propofol decreased from 35.5 +/- 4.5 in group B to 33.4 +/- 5.4 microg kg(-1) min(-1) in group BF and further decreased to 16.7 +/- 6.2 microg kg(-1) min(-1) and 14.8 +/- 4.9 microg kg(-1) min(-1) in group BC and BCF, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between BC and BCF groups. The mean sedation and reactivity scores were higher in groups BC and BCF when compared to groups B and BF. CONCLUSION: Our study show that the requirement of propofol sedation reduces with intrathecal adjuvants. The reduction was significant with the addition of clonidine and clonidine-fentanyl combination as opposed to bupivacaine alone or with fentanyl. There was no significant difference in propofol infusion requirement with the use of bupivacaine alone or with fentanyl.

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