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The pharmacokinetics of quinupristin/dalfopristin in laboratory animals and in humans.

Author(s): Bergeron M, Montay G

Affiliation(s): Department de Microbiologie, Universtite Laval, Quebec, Canada.

Publication date & source: 1997-05, J Antimicrob Chemother., 39 Suppl A:129-38.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Randomized Controlled Trial

The pharmacokinetics of quinupristin/dalfopristin have been studied in rats, monkeys and humans following intravenous infusion of radiolabelled and unlabelled drug. In rats and monkeys quinupristin and dalfopristin undergo rapid elimination from the blood and wide tissue distribution. Nevertheless, they do not penetrate the central nervous system or cross the placenta to any significant degree and they do not appear to be subject to significant body retention following cessation of administration. The blood elimination half-life of quinupristin was approximately 0.6 h in rats and 0.5 h in monkeys, and that of dalfopristin was approximately 0.6 h and 0.2 h, respectively. Both compounds are primarily eliminated through the bile into the faeces; quinupristin is mainly excreted unchanged whereas dalfopristin is extensively metabolized beforehand. The metabolites include the microbiologically active pristinamycin PIIA for dalfopristin and the microbiologically active glutathione- and cysteine-conjugated derivatives for quinupristin. Quinupristin and dalfopristin appear to be handled in a similar manner by humans. Following intravenous administration both compounds are rapidly cleared from the blood with elimination half-lives of approximately 1 h for quinupristin and 0.4-0.5 h for dalfopristin. The pharmacokinetic profile of quinupristin is dose-independent and so is that of dalfopristin and RP 12536 when considered together. Extravascular diffusion of quinupristin/dalfopristin has been assessed in human non-inflammatory interstitial fluid.

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