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A randomized trial of topical anesthesia comparing lidocaine versus lidocaine plus xylometazoline for unsedated transnasal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Author(s): Cheung J, Goodman K, Bailey R, Fedorak R, Morse J, Millan M, Guzowski T, van Zanten SV, CANHelP working group

Affiliation(s): Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Zeidler Ledcor Centre, Edmonton, Alberta. justin.cheung@ualberta.ca

Publication date & source: 2010-05, Can J Gastroenterol., 24(5):317-21.

Publication type: Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

BACKGROUND: The optimal topical anesthesia regimen for unsedated transnasal endoscopy is unknown. The addition of a nasal decongestant, such as xylometazoline (X), to a topical anesthestic may improve patient comfort. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of lidocaine (L) versus L plus X (LX) for anesthesia in unsedated transnasal endoscopy. METHODS: Consecutive participants of the Aklavik Helicobacter pylori project were prospectively randomly assigned to receive LX or L for unsedated transnasal 4.9 mm ultrathin endoscopy. The primary outcome was overall procedure discomfort on a validated 10-point visual analogue scale (1 = no discomfort, 10 = severe discomfort). Secondary outcomes included pain, endoscope insertion difficulty, gagging, adverse events and encounter times. Results were presented as mean +/- SD, difference in mean, 95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients were randomly assigned to receive LX (n=94) and L (n=87). Baseline characteristics between the two groups were similar (mean age 40 years, 59% women). Overall, patient procedural discomfort with LX and L were 4.2+/-2.4 versus 3.9+/-2.1, respectively (0.29; 95% CI -0.39 to 0.96). Transnasal insertion difficulty was significantly lower with LX than with L (2.4+/-2.1 versus 3.2+/-2.8, respectively [-0.80; 95% CI -1.54 to -0.06]). Compared with L, the use of LX was associated with significantly less time needed to apply anesthesia (2.4+/-1.8 min versus 3.5+/-2.2 min, respectively [-1.10; 95% CI -1.71 min to -0.50 min]) and less time for insertion (3.2+/-1.8 min versus 3.9+/-2.2 min, respectively [-0.70 min; 95% CI -1.30 min to -0.10 min]). Epistaxis was rare but occurred less frequently with LX (1.1%) than with L (4.6%) (P=0.19). CONCLUSIONS: LX did not improve patient comfort for transnasal endoscopy compared with L alone. However, LX was associated with less difficulty with endoscope transnasal insertion and reduced insertion time. Further studies on the optimal regimen and dosing of anesthesia are required.

Page last updated: 2010-10-05

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