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Antimicrobial prophylaxis for transrectal prostatic biopsy: a prospective study of ciprofloxacin vs piperacillin/tazobactam.

Author(s): Cormio L, Berardi B, Callea A, Fiorentino N, Sblendorio D, Zizzi V, Traficante A

Affiliation(s): Department of Urology, Di Venere Hospital, Bari-Carbonara, Italy.

Publication date & source: 2002-11, BJU Int., 90(7):700-2.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of short-term parenteral prophylaxis with piperacillin/tazobactam (P/T) with long-term oral prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin in preventing infective complications after transrectal prostatic biopsy (TPB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients scheduled for TPB were randomized to receive P/T (2250 mg intramuscular) twice daily for 2 days (Group 1), or ciprofloxacin (500 mg orally) twice daily for 7 days (Group 2), beginning on the evening before the procedure in both groups. All patients received a 100-mL phosphate enema 3 h before TPB. Evaluation included self-recording of body temperature in the 3 days after TPB, and culture of mid-stream urine (MSU) samples taken before and 3 and 15 days after TPB. Patients with indwelling urethral catheters or taking antibiotics or immunosuppressive drugs were excluded, as were patients with positive MSU cultures before TPB. RESULTS: Of the 138 evaluable patients, 72 received parenteral P/T and 66 oral ciprofloxacin. Bacteriuria (> 105 c.f.u./mL) after TPB occurred in two of 72 (2.8%) patients in Group 1 and in three of 66 (4.5%) patients in Group 2; this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.1). However, of the five patients with bacteriuria, two were symptomatic and both were in Group 2. Pyrexia occurred in only one patient in Group 2 with symptomatic urinary tract infection, and required hospitalization. No other patient reported a body temperature openface> 37.5 degrees C or drug-related side-effects. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study showed that short-term prophylaxis with P/T was associated with a low rate of asymptomatic bacteriuria, requiring no further treatment, whereas although the rate was similar on long-term prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin patients required further treatment, with one needing hospitalization. We recommend short-term prophylaxis with P/T despite its disadvantages of cost and parenteral administration.

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