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Different loss of BMD using uncemented press-fit and whole polyethylene cups fixed with cement: repeated DXA studies in 96 hips randomized to 3 types of fixation.

Author(s): Digas G, Karrholm J, Thanner J

Affiliation(s): Department of Orthopedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, SE-413 45, Sweden. georgios.digas@vgregion.se

Publication date & source: 2006-04, Acta Orthop., 77(2):218-26.

Publication type: Comparative Study ; Randomized Controlled Trial

BACKGROUND: In cemented THA, aseptic loosening of the cup is more common than loosening of the stem, while periprosthetic osteolysis of the socket resulting in difficult reconstruction problems has emerged as the most significant problem with cementless cup fixation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 90 patients (96 hips) scheduled for THA were stratified in three groups according to the method of fixation of the acetabular component: acrylic bone cement with fluoride (Cemex-F), porous-coated press-fit cup with ceramic coating (Trilogy, uncemented) and acrylic cement with gentamicin (Palacos). All patients received the Spectron EF stem. Acetabular bone mineral density was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) 1 week postoperatively, and after 12 and 24 months. The periprosthetic BMD was evaluated in 5 ROIs positioned around the acetabular component. RESULTS: In the uncemented sockets, the BMD had decreased proximally and medially to the cup after 2 years. The difference was significant in the proximal region as compared to the control group (Palacos). No difference was noted between the 2 groups with cemented components after 2 years. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that loss of periprosthetic BMD in the proximal high-pressure region after 2 years increased with higher postoperative BMD and when the uncemented design had been used. INTERPRETATION: Contrary to previous studies of cemented stems, the use of fluoride cement did not influence the periprosthetic BMD 2 years after the examination. Increased loss of BMD with use of uncemented press-fit cups in the region in which osteolytic lesions are commonly found suggests that stress shielding may initiate the development of this complication. Longer follow-up will, however, be necessary to substantiate this hypothesis.

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