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Initial treatment of dialysis associated peritonitis: a controlled trial of vancomycin versus cefazolin.

Author(s): Flanigan MJ, Lim VS

Affiliation(s): Department of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, Iowa City 52242.

Publication date & source: 1991, Perit Dial Int., 11(1):31-7.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

OBJECTIVE: To determine if intraperitoneal administration of vancomycin (a slowly absorbed antibiotic) improves the management of dialysis-associated peritonitis over that obtained by using cefazolin, an equally potent, rapidly absorbed antibiotic. SETTING: A university operated teaching hospital, with patient treatment initiated at home. PATIENTS: One hundred thirty-one patients trained to perform peritoneal dialysis (CAPD and CCPD) and followed at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Home Dialysis Treatment Center. DESIGN: Patients were prospectively allocated into groups adding either vancomycin 25 mgm/L, or cefazolin 50 mgm/L to their dialysate when signs or symptoms of peritonitis developed. Treatment results were analysed using chi-square testing. FINDINGS: Compared to cefazolin, initial peritonitis therapy with vancomycin improved the peritonitis resolution rate [67% vs 81%; p = 0.008], reduced the incidence of hospital admissions [68% vs 48%; p = 0.001], and decreased the risk of superinfection [4% vs 0%; p = 0.039]. CONCLUSION: Vancomycin appeared to be superior to cefazolin in the treatment of peritoneal dialysis associated peritonitis.

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