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Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of flucloxacillin in elderly hospitalized patients.

Author(s): Gath J, Charles B, Sampson J, Smithurst B

Affiliation(s): Department of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Queensland, Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Hospital, Australia.

Publication date & source: 1995-01, J Clin Pharmacol., 35(1):31-6.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

The pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of flucloxacillin were studied in five female and two male patients (age 68-87 yr) who had been hospitalized for orthopedic surgeries. A single dose of intravenous or oral flucloxacillin sodium (500 mg) was administered in random order on different occasions separated by at least 2 days. Blood and urine samples were taken up to 24 hours after drug administration and levels of flucloxacillin and 5-hydroxymethylflucloxacillin (5-HMF), a major metabolite, were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Flucloxacillin elimination, but not oral absorption, was reduced in the elderly, compared with data from young healthy subjects reported elsewhere. Total clearance, renal clearance, and volume of distribution were 0.083 +/- 0.013 L/kg/hr, 0.038 +/- 0.01 L/kg/hr, and 0.184 +/- 0.034 L/kg, respectively. Regression of flucloxacillin renal clearance (Clr) on estimated creatine clearance (CLcr) gave the relationship: Clr = 0.755 (CLcr) + 10.6 (r = 0.91; P = 0.004). Terminal half-lives for flucloxacillin and 5-HMF were 2.21 +/- 0.51 hr and 3.0 +/- 0.75 hr, respectively after intravenous administration. Flucloxacillin was absorbed rapidly after oral administration with a mean absorption time of 0.95 +/- 0.34 hr, and time to reach peak concentration of 1.20 +/- 0.29 hr. The absolute bioavailability of flucloxacillin from capsules was 54.4 +/- 18.8%.

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