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Randomized controlled trial comparing oral amoxicillin-clavulanate and ofloxacin with intravenous ceftriaxone and amikacin as outpatient therapy in pediatric low-risk febrile neutropenia.

Author(s): Gupta A, Swaroop C, Agarwala S, Pandey RM, Bakhshi S

Affiliation(s): Department of Medical Oncology, Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Publication date & source: 2009-09, J Pediatr Hematol Oncol., 31(9):635-41.

Publication type: Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

BACKGROUND: Outpatient oral therapy is infrequently used in pediatric low-risk febrile neutropenia (LRFN) as there is insufficient data regarding its equivalence as compared with parenteral therapy. METHODS: This is a single institutional, randomized control trial in pediatric LRFN aged 2 to 15 years, in which 123 episodes in 88 patients were randomized to outpatient oral ofloxacin 7.5 mg/kg 12 hourly and amoxycillin-clavulanate 12.5 mg/kg 8 hourly or outpatient intravenous (IV) ceftriaxone 75 mg/kg and amikacin 15 mg/kg once daily after blood cultures. RESULTS: Out of 119 evaluable episodes, one-third were leukemia patients in maintenance and rest were solid tumors. Success was achieved in 55/61 (90.16%) and 54/58 (93.1%) in oral and IV arms, respectively, (P=0.56). There were 3 hospitalizations but no mortality. Median days to resolution of fever, absolute neutrophil count >500/mm(3) and antibiotic use were 3, 5, and 6 days in both arms. There were 5 blood culture isolates (3 gram-positive and 2 gram-negative bacteria). Failure of outpatient therapy was associated with perianal infections, bacteremia, febrile neutropenia onset before day 9 of chemotherapy in solid tumors and Vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for rhabdomyosarcoma. All gram-positive isolates were successes, whereas both gram-negative isolates were failures. Diarrhea in IV arm and Vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in the oral arm predicted failure in subgroup analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient therapy is efficacious and safe in pediatric LRFN. There was no difference in outcome in oral versus IV outpatient therapy. Amoxycillin-clavulanate and ofloxacin may be the oral regimen of choice.

Page last updated: 2009-10-20

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