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Bioavailability of intravenous fosphenytoin sodium in healthy Japanese volunteers.

Author(s): Inoue Y(1), Usui N, Hiroki T, Shimizu K, Kobayashi S, Shimasaki S.

Affiliation(s): Author information: (1)National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka, Japan.

Publication date & source: 2013, Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. , 38(2):139-48

To compare and evaluate the bioavailability for intravenous fosphenytoin sodium with that of intravenous phenytoin sodium in Japanese subjects. In study 1, healthy Japanese male volunteers received a 30-min infusion of 375 mg fosphenytoin sodium or an equimolar dose of 250 mg phenytoin by a double-blind, crossover method. In study 2, other healthy Japanese male volunteers received a 30-min or 10-min infusion of 563 mg fosphenytoin sodium, followed by a dose of 750 mg after 2 weeks in an unblinded manner. Comparing with 250 mg phenytoin sodium, 375 mg fosphenytoin sodium exhibited lower total plasma phenytoin C max, whereas the geometric mean ratio of the AUC of total and free phenyotoin for fosphenytoin sodium at a dose of 375 mg was very similar to phenytoin sodium at a equimolar dose of 250 mg (AUC0-t ratio: 0.98 and 1.02, respectively). Therefore, fosphenytoin is almost completely converted to phenytoin in subjects. Fosphenytoin sodium was rapidly converted to phenytoin at doses of 375, 563, and 750 mg. The maximum concentration (C max) of total plasma phenytoin increased in a dose-dependent manner. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased slightly more than proportionally with the administered dose, and clearance (CL) decreased with increasing dose. Pain and other infusion-site reactions were reported by all 12 subjects with phenytoin sodium, whereas very few symptoms were observed with fosphenytoin sodium. In conclusion, fosphenytoin sodium is considered to be a useful substitute for phenytoin sodium with almost no associated injection-site reactions.

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