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Comparison of vancomycin versus cefazolin as initial therapy for peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients.

Author(s): Khairullah Q, Provenzano R, Tayeb J, Ahmad A, Balakrishnan R, Morrison L

Affiliation(s): Department of Internal Medicine, St John Hospital & Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan 48236, USA.

Publication date & source: 2002-05, Perit Dial Int., 22(3):339-44.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

The incidence of peritonitis ranges from 1 episode every 24 patient treatment months to 1 episode every 60 patient treatment months [Keane WF, et al. ISPD Guidelines/Recommendations. Adult peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis treatment recommendations: 2000 update. Perit Dial Int 2000; 20:396-411.]. Gram-positive organisms account for over 80% of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis. Recent fear of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has prompted suggestions of limiting vancomycin use. Fifty-one episodes of peritonitis in 30 patients studied over 2 years were evaluated. Cloudiness of the PD fluid and/or abdominal pain were considered suggestive of peritonitis and were confirmed by cell count and culture. Baseline cell count, Gram stain, and cultures were obtained, with periodic follow-up. Patients were randomized to receive either vancomycin 1 g/L intraperitoneally (IP) as loading dose, repeated on day 5 or day 8, depending on residual renal function, for 2 weeks, or cefazolin 1 g in the first PD bag and continued with 125 mg/L every exchange for 2 or 3 weeks, depending on culture results. All patients also received gentamicin 40 mg IP every day until the culture results were available. A similar randomized trial comparing vancomycin and cefazolin in the past used a lower concentration of cefazolin 50 mg/L [Flanigan MJ, Lim VS. Initial treatment of dialysis associated peritonitis: a controlled trial of vancomycin versus cefazolin. Perit Dial /nt 1991; 11:31-7.]. Peritoneal dialysate fluid cultures revealed 31(60.7%) gram-positive organisms, 7(13.7%) gram-negative organisms, and 2 (3.9%) cultured yeast; 11 (21.5%) cultures yielded no growth. The incidence of peritonitis at our center was 1 episode every 42 patient treatment months. No case of VRE was noted. There was no statistical difference in clinical response or relapse rate for the two protocols. It was the authors' and nurses' observation that patient compliance and satisfaction was better with vancomycin, and the cost per treatment was 23% less than cefazolin. Based on these data we believe vancomycin should still be considered for first-line treatment of PD-associated peritonitis.

Page last updated: 2006-01-31

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