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Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of two dosing regimens for piperacillin-tazobactam.

Author(s): Kim MK, Capitano B, Mattoes HM, Xuan D, Quintiliani R, Nightingale CH, Nicolau DP

Affiliation(s): Department of Pharmacy Research, Hartford Hospital, Connecticut 06102, USA.

Publication date & source: 2002-05, Pharmacotherapy., 22(5):569-77.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of two dosing regimens for piperacillin-tazobactam against commonly encountered pathogens. The regimens compared were piperacillin 4.0 g-tazobactam 0.5 g administered every 8 hours, and piperacillin 3.0 g-tazobactam 0.375 g administered every 6 hours. DESIGN: Multiple-dose, open-label, randomized, crossover study. SETTING: Clinical research center at Hartford Hospital. SUBJECTS: Twelve healthy volunteers. INTERVENTION: The two dosing regimens for piperacillin-tazobactam were administered intravenously in crossover design. Blood was sampled after the third dose. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Drug concentrations were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The percentage of time above minimum inhibitory concentration (%T>MIC) for piperacillin was calculated for a range of MIC values. The maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-tau), and total clearance of piperacillin differed significantly between the two study regimens, as did the Cmax, AUC0-tau, volume of distribution, and total clearance of tazobactam (p<0.05). The piperacillin 4.0 g-tazobactam 0.5 g regimen provided 40-50% T>MIC for MIC values 8-16 microg/ml; a similar value for the piperacillin 3.0 g-tazobactam 0.375 g regimen was 16-32 microg/ml. CONCLUSION: Although statistically significant differences in the pharmacodynamic profile were noted for the regimens, both provide adequate T>MIC against commonly encountered pathogens considered susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam. However, for treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, combination therapy or higher-dosage regimens (e.g., piperacillin 3.0 g-tazobactam 0.375 g every 4 hours, piperacillin 4.0 g-tazobactam 0.5 g every 6 hours, or continuous-infusion piperacillin 12 g-tazobactam 1.5 g/day) may be a prudent option when full MIC data are unavailable.

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