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Effects of phentolamine on tissue perfusion in pediatric cardiac surgery.

Author(s): Koner O, Tekin S, Koner A, Soybir N, Seren S, Karaoglu K

Affiliation(s): Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Cardiology Institute of Istanbul University, Turkey.

Publication date & source: 1999-04, J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth., 13(2):191-7.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the deleterious effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can be overcome by phentolamine-induced pharmacologic vasodilation in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, clinical study. SETTING: Single university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three pediatric patients undergoing open cardiac surgery for repair of congenital heart disease. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Patients in group 1 (n = 22) received 0.2 mg/kg of phentolamine during the cooling and rewarming periods of CPB. Group 2 patients (n = 21) did not receive phentolamine. Temperature measurements (rectal [R], nasopharyngeal [N], and toe [P]) and serum lactate values were obtained before, during, and after CPB; systemic oxygen consumption was evaluated during CPB. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: At the end of the CPB period and at the end of the operation, lactate values of group 1 (1.87+/-0.37 and 1.8+/-0.39 mmol/L, respectively) were significantly lower than values of group 2 (2.24+/-0.28 and 2.33+/-0.33 mmol/L; p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). At the beginning of the rewarming period N-R temperature gradients of group 1 (0.14 degrees C+/-0.92 degrees C) were lower than group 2 (-0.58 degrees C+/-1.84 degrees C) values (p < 0.05). Central-peripheral temperature gradients of group 1 obtained at the end of the CPB period (N-R = 2.18 degrees C+/-0.69 degrees C; N-P = 7.84 degrees C+/-1.54 degrees C; R-P = 5.66 degrees C+/-1.70 degrees C) were significantly lower than the values of group 2 (N-R = 2.80 degrees C+/-0.91 degrees C, N-P = 9.97 degrees C+/-2.02 degrees C; R-P = 7.18 degrees C+/-2.10 degrees C; p < 0.05; p < 0.001; p < 0.05). At the end of the operation values of group 1 (N-R = 0.48 degrees C+/-0.31 degrees C; N-P = 6.30 degrees C+/-1.23 degrees C; R-P = 5.82 degrees C+/-1.16 degrees C) were significantly lower than the values of group 2 (N-R = 0.94 degrees C+/-0.56 degrees C; N-P = 8.69 degrees C+/-0.28 degrees C; R-P = 7.75 degrees C+/-2.15 degrees C; p < 0.05; p < 0.001; p < 0.001). The systemic oxygen consumption values of group 1 were higher than group 2 (6.26+/-1.82 v 5.17+/-1.05 mL/min/kg; p < 0.05) after complete rewarming. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) values of group 1 (58.9+/-6.4 mmHg) were lower than group 2 (63.4+/-6.7 mmHg) at the period after CPB (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the use of phentolamine during CPB is associated with limited systemic anaerobic metabolism and more uniform body perfusion.

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