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[Effect of intravenous administration of nitroglycerin and regitine on hemodynamics in mitral valve insufficiency]

Author(s): Korewicki J, Rajecka A, Pogorzelska H, Madeja G

Affiliation(s): Kliniki Wad Serca Instytutu Kardiologii.

Publication date & source: 1990, Kardiol Pol., 33(6):365-74.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Randomized Controlled Trial

During exercise in subjects with congestive heart failure and mitral regurgitation the rise in systemic arterial pressure is usually accompanied by increase in systemic vascular resistance. That could cause decrease of cardiac output not only because of a lack of myocardial reserve, but also because of an increase of mitral regurgitant volume. In such situation decrease in left ventricular preload could further increase the regurgitant volume and cardiac output. Whether changes in pre-or afterload can cause significant changes in mitral regurgitation, nitroglycerin and phentolamine was assessed in that group of patients. 22 patients with significant mitral regurgitation (3+,4+) was randomly divided into two groups. The first one received short intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin at a rate of 170 micrograms/min. The second one received phentolamine intravenously 1-1,5 mg/min. Patients underwent right heart catheterization with Swan-Ganz thermodilution catheter. Mean pulmonary, pulmonary capillary wedge, and right atrial pressure were monitored and recorded. Cardiac output was determined by thermodilution technique using iced 5% dextrose. If there were no contraindications (PWP greater than 30 mm Hg) an effort test was performed (cycloergometer, supine position). The same protocol was repeated during administration of nitroglycerin and phentolamine. Nitroglycerin significantly decreased right atrial and capillary wedge pressure (from 22.9 to 15.6 mm Hg). There were no significant differences in cardiac output, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance. Pulmonary artery pressure decreased after nitroglycerin but the difference was not significant. All above effects of nitroglycerin persisted during effort. Phentolamine decreased significantly right atrial, pulmonary and capillary wedge pressure with simultaneous increase of cardiac output (30%) and decrease of pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance. In summary, nitroglycerin decreases only symptoms and theoretically could worsen forward flow in patients with mitral regurgitation and heart failure, especially in subjects with a significant increase of systemic vascular resistance during effort.

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