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Nephrotoxicity of iodixanol versus iopamidol in patients with chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiographic procedures.

Author(s): Laskey W, Aspelin P, Davidson C, Rudnick M, Aubry P, Kumar S, Gietzen F, Wiemer M, DXV405 Study Group

Affiliation(s): Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, 87131, USA. wlaskey@salud.unm.edu

Publication date & source: 2009-11, Am Heart J., 158(5):822-828.e3.

Publication type: Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

BACKGROUND: The choice of radiographic contrast media for use in patients at increased risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is of ongoing interest. METHODS: The current study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind design comparing the renal effects of the non-ionic, iso-osmolal agent, iodixanol, versus the non-ionic, low-osmolal agent, iopamidol, in 526 subjects with impaired baseline renal function (chronic kidney disease) and diabetes mellitus undergoing diagnostic and/or therapeutic coronary angiographic procedures. The co-primary end points were the peak increase in serum creatinine (SCr) and the incidence of CIN (increase > or =0.5 mg/dL) in SCr from baseline within 3 days of receiving contrast media. RESULTS: In 418 evaluable subjects with complete postcontrast media SCr data, the median peak increase in SCr in the iodixanol arm was 0.10 mg/dL, whereas in the iopamidol arm, the median peak increase was 0.09 mg/dL (P = .13). The overall CIN incidence was 10.5% (11.2% % in the iodixanol arm and 9.8% in the iopamidol arm, P = .7). The volume of contrast media, volume of saline administered, frequency of coronary interventional procedures, and severity of baseline kidney disease and of diabetes mellitus were similar between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, the overall rate of CIN in patients with chronic kidney disease and DM undergoing coronary angiographic procedures was 10.5%. There was no significant difference between iodixanol and iopamidol in either peak increase in SCr or risk of CIN.

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