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Prophylaxis against infection in total joint arthroplasty. One day of cefuroxime compared with three days of cefazolin.

Author(s): Mauerhan DR, Nelson CL, Smith DL, Fitzgerald RH Jr, Slama TG, Petty RW, Jones RE, Evans RP

Affiliation(s): Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock 72201.

Publication date & source: 1994-01, J Bone Joint Surg Am., 76(1):39-45.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

The efficacy of cefuroxime was compared with the efficacy of cefazolin for prophylaxis against postoperative wound infection in a prospective, double-blind, multicenter study of 1354 patients who had had elective primary or revision total hip or knee arthroplasty. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either 1.5 grams of cefuroxime followed by 750 milligrams eight and sixteen hours later (for a total of one day of antibiotic treatment), or one gram of cefazolin every eight hours for nine doses (for a total of three days of antibiotic treatment). The first dose of each drug was administered fifteen to sixty minutes before the operative incision was made (for a primary operation) or after tissue samples had been obtained for culture (for a revision procedure). After the operation, the patients were assessed daily while hospitalized and then at two to three months and one year after the operation. Demographic characteristics and risk factors were similar in the two groups. For the patients who had had a primary hip arthroplasty, the rate of deep wound infection was 0.5 per cent (one of 187) for those who had received cefuroxime and 1.2 per cent (two of 168) for those who had received cefazolin. For the patients who had had a primary knee arthroplasty, the rate of deep wound infection was 0.6 per cent (one of 178) for those who had received cefuroxime and 1.4 per cent (three of 207) for those who had received cefazolin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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