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Patient isolation measures for infants with candida colonization or infection for preventing or reducing transmission of candida in neonatal units.

Author(s): Mohan P, Eddama O, Weisman LE

Affiliation(s): Baylor College of Medicine, Pediatrics, Section of Neonataology, 6621, Fannin, MC.WT 6-104, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. mohanv@bcm.tmc.edu

Publication date & source: 2007-07-18, Cochrane Database Syst Rev., (3):CD006068.

Publication type: Review

BACKGROUND: Candida is one of the most common nosocomial infections in the intensive care setting worldwide and is associated with increased healthcare costs. In neonates, candida infection is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Candida is transmitted by direct and indirect contact. Routine infection control measures that include standard precautions are routinely employed to prevent spread of nosocomial infections. Patient isolation measures, i.e. single room isolation or cohorting, are usually recommended for infections spread by contact. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of patient isolation measures (single room isolation and/or cohorting) for infants with candida colonization or infection as an adjunct to routine infection control measures on the transmission of candida to other infants in the neonatal unit. SEARCH STRATEGY: Relevant trials in any language were searched in the following databases in Jan 2007: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 - Jan 2007) and PREMEDLINE, EMBASE (1980 - Jan 2007), CINAHL (1982 - Jan 2007). Proceedings of the Pediatric Academic Societies (American Pediatric Society, Society for Pediatric Research) and the European Society for Pediatric Research (1987 - Jan 2007) were also searched in Jan 2007. Authors or other experts were contacted for more information on relevant published or unpublished trials. Additional searches were also made in the reference lists of relevant journal articles and in the reviewer's personal files. SELECTION CRITERIA: Types of studies: Cluster randomized trials (where clusters may be defined by hospital, ward, or other subunits of the hospital).Types of participants: Neonatal units caring for infants colonized or infected with candida.Types of interventions: A policy of patient isolation measures (single room isolation or cohorting of infants with candida colonization or infection) compared to routine isolation measures. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG) were to be used to identify studies and to assess the methodological quality of eligible trials. The statistical package (RevMan 4.2) provided by the Cochrane Collaboration was to be used. In cluster-randomized trials, if the unit of analysis of the trial was the cluster (not individuals) and analysis took into account the correlation between clusters, the inverse variance method was to be used for meta-analysis. If this was not the case, a narrative synthesis was to be made without meta-analysis. Infection rates and colonization rates were to be expressed as rate ratios for each trial and if appropriate for meta-analysis, the generic inverse variance method in RevMan was to be used. MAIN RESULTS: No eligible trials were identified. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The review found no evidence to either support or refute the use of patient isolation measures (single room isolation or cohorting) in neonates with candida colonization or infection.Despite the evidence for transmission of candida by direct or indirect contact and evidence of cross-infection by health care workers, no standard policy of patient isolation measures beyond routine infection control measures exists in the neonatal unit. There is an urgent need to research the role of patient isolation measures for preventing transmission of candida in the neonatal unit. Cluster randomized trials involving multiple units or hospitals with randomized allocation of one type of patient isolation measure or the other (i.e. single room isolation or cohorting) with careful consideration for determining an appropriate sample size and analysis would be the most appropriate method to research this intervention.

Page last updated: 2007-10-18

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