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Reduced acquisition and overgrowth of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and Candida species in patients treated with fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection.

Author(s): Nerandzic MM, Mullane K, Miller MA, Babakhani F, Donskey CJ.

Affiliation(s): Research Service, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

Publication date & source: 2012, Clin Infect Dis. , 55 Suppl 2:S121-6

Fidaxomicin causes less disruption of anaerobic microbiota during treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) than vancomycin and has activity against many vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). In conjunction with a multicenter randomized trial of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for CDI treatment, we tested the hypothesis that fidaxomicin promotes VRE and Candida species colonization less than vancomycin. Stool was cultured for VRE and Candida species before and after therapy. For patients with negative pretreatment cultures, the incidence of VRE and Candida species acquisition was compared. For those with preexisting VRE, the change in concentration during treatment was compared. The susceptibility of VRE isolates to fidaxomicin was assessed. Of 301 patients, 247 (82%) had negative VRE cultures and 252 (84%) had negative Candida species cultures before treatment. In comparison with vancomycin-treated patients, fidaxomicin-treated patients had reduced acquisition of VRE (7% vs 31%, respectively; P < .001) and Candida species (19% vs 29%, respectively; P = .03). For patients with preexisting VRE, the mean concentration decreased significantly in the fidaxomicin group (5.9 vs 3.8 log(10) VRE/g stool; P = .01) but not the vancomycin group (5.3 vs 4.2 log(10) VRE/g stool; P = .20). Most VRE isolates recovered after fidaxomicin treatment had elevated fidaxomicin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs; MIC(90), 256 µg/mL), and subpopulations of VRE with elevated fidaxomicin MICs were common before therapy. Fidaxomicin was less likely than vancomycin to promote acquisition of VRE and Candida species during CDI treatment. However, selection of preexisting subpopulations of VRE with elevated fidaxomicin MICs was common during fidaxomicin therapy.

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