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Treatment of hospitalized patients with complicated gram-positive skin and skin structure infections: two randomized, multicentre studies of quinupristin/dalfopristin versus cefazolin, oxacillin or vancomycin. Synercid Skin and Skin Structure Infection Group.

Author(s): Nichols RL, Graham DR, Barriere SL, Rodgers A, Wilson SE, Zervos M, Dunn DL, Kreter B

Affiliation(s): Department of Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112-2699, USA.

Publication date & source: 1999-08, J Antimicrob Chemother., 44(2):263-73.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid), the first injectable streptogramin antibiotic available for the treatment of complicated gram-positive skin and skin structure infections, was compared with standard comparators (cefazolin, oxacillin or vancomycin) in one USA and one international trial. These two randomized, open-label trials of virtually identical design enrolled a total of 893 patients (450 quinupristin/dalfopristin, 443 comparator). The majority of patients had erysipelas, traumatic wound infection or clean surgical wound infection. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen in both treatment groups and polymicrobial infection was more common in the quinupristin/dalfopristin group than in the comparator group. The clinical success rate (cure plus improvement) in the clinically evaluable population was equivalent between the two treatment groups (68.2% quinupristin/dalfopristin, 70.7% comparator; 95% CI, -10.1, 5.1) despite a shorter mean duration of treatment for quinupristin/dalfopristin patients. In the bacteriologically evaluable population, by-patient and by-pathogen bacteriological eradication rates were somewhat lower for quinupristin/dalfopristin (65.8% and 66.6%, respectively) than for the comparator regimens (72.7% and 77.7%, respectively). The lower bacteriological response rates in the quinupristin/dalfopristin group were, in part, due to a higher rate of polymicrobial infections and a higher incidence of patients classified as clinical failure, a category which included premature discontinuation of treatment because of local venous adverse events. The bacteriological eradication rate for quinupristin/dalfopristin was higher in monomicrobial infections than in polymicrobial infections (72.6% versus 63.3%, respectively), whereas the corresponding rate for the comparator regimens was lower for monomicrobial infections than polymicrobial infections (70.8% versus 83.1%). This finding was not unexpected, since the spectrum of quinupristin/dalfopristin is focused on gram-positive pathogens and additional antibiotics to treat gram-negative bacteria were not required per protocol. The systemic tolerability of both treatment regimens was qualitatively similar. A higher rate of drug-related venous adverse events was reported for quinupristin/dalfopristin (66.2%) than for the comparator regimen (28.4%). Premature discontinuation of study drug was primarily due to adverse clinical events for quinupristin/dalfopristin (19.1%), whereas the most common reason for discontinuation among those receiving the comparator regimens was treatment failure (11.5%). Quinupristin/dalfopristin is an effective alternative for the treatment of hospitalized patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections due to quinupristin/ dalfopristin-susceptible gram-positive organisms, including methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant S. aureus.

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