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Influence of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan on diuretic-induced metabolic effects in elderly hypertensive patients: comparison with a calcium channel blocker.

Author(s): Ohnishi K, Kohno M, Yukiiri K, Masugata H, Wada Y, Takagi Y, Ohmori K

Affiliation(s): The Second Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Medical University, Kita, Kagawa, Japan.

Publication date & source: 2001-10, Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther., 39(10):417-22.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

OBJECTIVE: Diuretic therapy frequently induces undesirable biochemical changes and side effects. We compared metabolic effects of a low-dose diuretic (D) given in combination with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan (L), with those resulting from a diuretic given in combination with a calcium channel blocker, slow-release nifedipine (N). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-seven elderly patients with mild to moderate hypertension (mean age: 71 +/- 3 years) were treated with either L+D (n = 18) or N+D (n = 19) for 1 year. Diuretic therapy included low-dose trichlormethiazide or low-dose furosemide in numbers of patients that were similar between L+D and N+D groups. Blood pressure, serum electrolytes, uric acid, blood glucose, renal function and lipid parameters were measured at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. RESULTS: Effective blood pressure control was observed in both groups at 6 months, and with further improvement at 1 year. Serum potassium was significantly decreased from baseline at 6 months (p < 0.01) and 1 year (p < 0.01) in the N+D group, but not in the L+D group. Serum uric acid was significantly increased from baseline at 6 months (p < 0.01) and 1 year (p < 0.01) in the N+D group, but had minimally decreased at 1 year in the L+D group (p < 0.1). Blood glucose, renal function and lipid parameters did not change in either group. CONCLUSION: The combination of losartan and low-dose diuretics effectively treated hypertension in elderly patients while minimizing the metabolic consequences of diuretic therapy. Larger trials will be necessary to confirm this finding.

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