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Antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatric odontology. An update.

Author(s): Planells del Pozo P, Barra Soto MJ, Santa Eulalia Troisfontaines E

Affiliation(s): Department of Stomatology IV. Madrid Complutense University. Madrid, Spain. pplanells@telefonica.net

Publication date & source: 2006-07-01, Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal., 11(4):E352-7.

Publication type: Review

Most orofacial infections are of odontogenic origin, and are of a self-limiting nature, characterized by spontaneous drainage. The causal bacteria are generally saprophytes. On the other hand, invasive dental interventions give rise to transient bacteremia. When an oral lesion is contaminated by extrinsic bacteria, the required antibiotic treatment should be provided as soon as possible. In the case of pulpitis, such treatment is usually not indicated if the infection only reaches the pulp tissue or the immediately adjacent tissues. In the event of dental avulsion, local antibiotic application is advised, in addition to the provision of systemic antibiotics. The dental professional must know the severity of the infection and the general condition of the child in order to decide referral to a medical center. Prophylaxis is required in all immunocompromised patients, as well as in individuals with cardiac problems associated with endocarditis, vascular catheters or prostheses. Penicillin V associated to clavulanic acid and administered via the oral route is known to be effective against odontogenic infections. In the case of allergies to penicillin, an alternative drug is clindamycin. Most acute infections are resolved within 3-7 days. In recent years, the tendency is to reduce general antibiotic use for preventive or therapeutic purposes.

Page last updated: 2007-02-12

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