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Single-dose pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam in infants and children.

Author(s): Reed MD, Goldfarb J, Yamashita TS, Lemon E, Blumer JL

Affiliation(s): Division of Pediatric Pharmacology, Rainbow Babies and Childrens Hospital, Cleveland, OH 44106-6010, USA.

Publication date & source: 1994-12, Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 38(12):2817-26.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

The pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam were assessed after single-dose administration to 47 infants and children. Study subjects ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years were randomized to receive one of two different doses of a piperacillin-tazobactam combination (8:1): a low dose (n = 23) of 50 and 6.25 mg of piperacillin and tazobactam per kg of body weight, respectively, or a high dose (n = 24) of 100 and 12.5 mg, respectively. The pharmacokinetic behavior of tazobactam was very similar to that observed for piperacillin, supporting the use of these two agents in a fixed-dose combination. No differences in the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin or tazobactam were observed between the two doses administered. The elimination parameters half-life and total body clearance decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing age, whereas volume parameters (volume of distribution and steady-state volume of distribution) remained relatively constant for both compounds. The primary metabolite of tazobactam, metabolite M1, was measurable in the plasma of 18 of the 47 study subjects; 17 of these 18 subjects received the high doses. More than 70% of the administered piperacillin and tazobactam doses were excreted unchanged in the urine over a 6-h collection period. These data combined with the known in vitro susceptibilities of a broad range of pediatric bacterial pathogens indicate that a dose of 100 mg of piperacillin and 12.5 of mg tazobactam per kg of body weight administered as a fixed-dose combination every 6 to 8 h would be appropriate to initiate clinical efficacy studies in infants and children for the treatment of systemic infections arising outside of the central nervous system.

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