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In-vitro activity and killing effect of quinupristin/dalfopristin (RP59500) on nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus and interactions with rifampicin and ciprofloxacin against methicillin-resistant isolates.

Author(s): Sambatakou H, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Grecka P, Chryssouli Z, Giamarellou H

Affiliation(s): First Department of Propedeutic Medicine, Athens Medical School, Greece.

Publication date & source: 1998-03, J Antimicrob Chemother., 41(3):349-55.

Quinupristin/dalfopristin (RP59500) is a novel streptogramin and a semisynthetic derivative of pristinamycins IA and IIB. The following properties of RP59500 were investigated: (i) its in-vitro activity against 164 hospital isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 101 of which were methicillin-resistant (MRSA); (ii) its killing effect against 24 MRSA and seven methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) isolates; (iii) its interactions with rifampicin and ciprofloxacin against 18 MRSA isolates, six susceptible to both rifampicin and ciprofloxacin and 12 resistant to both, at 1 x MIC, 2 x MIC and 4 x MIC. Rifampicin and ciprofloxacin were applied at a concentration equal to their mean serum levels in order to establish the clinical relevance of the results. The MIC50, MIC90, MBC50 and MBC90 of quinupristin/dalfopristin were, respectively, < or = 0.015, 2, 0.12 and 2 mg/L for MRSA isolates and < or = 0.015, 0.06, < or = 0.015 and 0.25 mg/L for MSSA isolates. All isolates were inhibited by quinupristin/dalfopristin. Its killing effect varied with concentration and time, being optimal at 4 x MIC and after 24 h growth. Strains surviving 24 h exposure to this agent had much higher MICs than the parent strain, but only a limited number of them became resistant. Quinupristin/dalfopristin at 2 x MIC and 4 x MIC showed in-vitro synergy with rifampicin against highly resistant isolates mainly at 6 h and 24 h of growth involving 50-83% of MRSA isolates, and showed synergy with ciprofloxacin at 24 h involving 42-75% of isolates. The MIC increase in colonies surviving at 24 h was restricted by the presence of rifampicin or ciprofloxacin. In contrast, the above combinations acted synergically over the total number of MRSA strains susceptible to both rifampicin and ciprofloxacin. The above findings show that quinupristin/dalfopristin is a very potent antistaphylococcal agent, and that its activity against MRSA isolates is enhanced when it is combined with rifampicin or ciprofloxacin.

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