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Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin for prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus disease in infants and children with congenital heart disease. The Cardiac Study Group.

Author(s): Simoes EA, Sondheimer HM, Top FH Jr, Meissner HC, Welliver RC, Kramer AA, Groothuis JR

Affiliation(s): University of Colorado, Denver, USA.

Publication date & source: 1998-10, J Pediatr., 133(4):492-9.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin administered intravenously (RSV-IGIV) in reducing hospitalization for treatment of RSV in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Children younger than 4 years of age were randomly assigned to a treatment group receiving RSV-IGIV, 750 mg/kg, monthly or to a control group not receiving infusions. Surveillance for respiratory tract infections was carried out and management decisions were made by physicians blinded to treatment group. RESULTS: Hospitalization for treatment of an RSV infection occurred in 32 of 214 (15%) of control children and 21 of 202 (10%) of the children receiving RSV-IGIV, a 31% reduction (P = .16). However, in infants younger than 6 months of age at study entry, 20 of 82 (24%) in the control group and 10 of 96 (10%) in the RSV-IGIV group had RSV hospitalizations (58% reduction, P = .01). The incidence of hospitalization for any respiratory tract symptomatology was lower in the RSV-IGIV group (34 of 202, 17%) than in the control group (57 of 214, 27%; P = .02). There was a significantly higher frequency of unanticipated cyanotic episodes and of poor outcomes after surgery among children with cyanotic CHD in the RSV-IGIV group (22 of 78, 28%) than in the control group (4 of 47, 8.5%; P = .009). CONCLUSION: RSV-IGIV should not be used for prophylaxis of RSV disease in children with cyanotic CHD. RSV-IGIV did not reduce RSV hospitalization in all children with CHD, but it was effective in preventing RSV hospitalization in infants younger than 6 months of age. Further studies in these children are indicated.

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