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Double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study on the efficacy and safety of oral granisetron and oral ondansetron in the prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving hyperfractionated total body irradiation.

Author(s): Spitzer TR, Friedman CJ, Bushnell W, Frankel SR, Raschko J

Affiliation(s): Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA.

Publication date & source: 2000-07, Bone Marrow Transplant., 26(2):203-10.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

The efficacy and safety of granisetron and ondansetron for the prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting resulting from hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) were assessed. Thirty-four patients randomly received double-blind, oral granisetron (2 mg, 1 h before first daily fraction of radiation) or ondansetron (8 mg, 1.5 h prior to each fraction of TBI). Ninety patients who received the same TBI regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT), but no 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, were identified and comprised the historical control group. By design, this study was only powered to show a difference between each of the active treatment groups and the historical control group. Significantly more patients given granisetron (33.3%) or ondansetron (26.7%) had zero emetic episodes over 4 days, the primary efficacy end point, than those in the historical control group (0%) (P < 0.01; intent-to-treat). Secondary efficacy end points were also evaluated. During the first 24 h, significantly more patients taking granisetron (61.1%) or ondansetron (46.7%) had zero emetic episodes than patients in the historical control group (6.7%) (P < 0.01). Complete emetic control (no emesis or rescue antiemetic) over 4 days was more frequent in patients taking granisetron (27.8%) or ondansetron (26.7%) compared with the historical control group (0%) (P < 0.01). Significantly fewer patients taking granisetron (18/18), but not those taking ondansetron (12/15), experienced more than five emetic episodes during the 4 days of the study compared with the historical control group (40/90; P < 0.01). Oral granisetron and ondansetron are safe and effective for the prevention of nausea and vomiting resulting from TBI.

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