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Effective antihypertensive strategies for high-risk patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Author(s): Van Buren PN, Adams-Huet B, Toto RD

Affiliation(s): Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390-8523, USA. vanburenp@gmail.com

Publication date & source: 2010-12, J Investig Med., 58(8):950-6.

Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

AIM: Clinical guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP) lowering and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition to slow kidney disease progression in patients with diabetic nephropathy. This study's purpose was to determine whether an antihypertensive regimen including a maximally dosed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor could safely achieve target BP in indigent, predominantly minority patients with this disease. METHODS: We studied 81 hypertensive adults (52% Hispanic and 31% African American) with nephropathy attributed to type 1 or 2 diabetes during the run-in period of a randomized controlled trial. The subjects received lisinopril titrated to 80 mg daily and additional antihypertensives to target a systolic BP (SBP) lower than 130 mm Hg. Blood pressure and serum potassium level were measured weekly, and a 4-gram sodium diet was prescribed. The primary outcome variable was SBP change from screening to randomization. Success in achieving SBP goal, change in urine albumin-creatinine ratio, hyperkalemia (serum potassium >/=5.5 mmol/L) and hypotension (SBP < 100 mm Hg) were also analyzed. RESULTS: The median SBP decreased from 144 to 133 mm Hg (median change, -9.6%.) Fifty-eight (71%) achieved goal SBP during run-in. The median UACR decreased from 206.8 to 112.7 mg/mmol (median change, -42.7%). The UACR reduction correlated with SBP reduction. Seventeen subjects experienced hyperkalemia responsive to dietary/medical management. Two subjects experienced hypotension responsive to medication adjustments. CONCLUSION: A regimen using a maximally dosed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor is safe and effective for achieving BP goal in high-risk, predominantly minority patients with diabetic nephropathy. Implementing this regimen necessitates close monitoring of serum potassium level.

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