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Treatment duration of febrile urinary tract infection (FUTIRST trial): a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial comparing short (7 days) antibiotic treatment with conventional treatment (14 days).

Author(s): van Nieuwkoop C, van't Wout JW, Assendelft WJ, Elzevier HW, Leyten EM, Koster T, Wattel-Louis GH, Delfos NM, Ablij HC, Kuijper EJ, Pander J, Blom JW, Spelt IC, van Dissel JT

Affiliation(s): Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. c.van_nieuwkoop@lumc.nl

Publication date & source: 2009-08-19, BMC Infect Dis., 9:131.

Publication type: Comparative Study; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines on the management of urinary tract infection recommend treating febrile urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis with antimicrobials for at least 14 days. Few randomized trials showed the effectiveness of treatment durations of 5 to 7 days but this has only been studied in young previously healthy women. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter non-inferiority trial in which 400 patients with community acquired febrile urinary tract infection will be randomly allocated to a short treatment arm (7 days of ciprofloxacin or 7 days of empirical beta-lactams +/- gentamicin intravenously with early switch to oral ciprofloxacin followed by 7 days of blinded placebo) or standard treatment arm (7 days of ciprofloxacin or 7 days of empirical beta-lactams +/- gentamicin intravenously with early switch to oral ciprofloxacin followed by 7 days of blinded ciprofloxacin). The study is performed in the Leiden region in which one university hospital, 6 general hospitals and 32 primary health care centers are clustered. Patients eligible for randomization are competent patients aged 18 years or above with a presumptive diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis as defined by the combination of fever, one or more symptoms of urinary tract infection and a positive urine nitrate test and/or the presence of leucocyturia. Exclusion criteria are known allergy to fluoroquinolones, female patients who are pregnant or lactating, polycystic kidney disease, permanent renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation, isolation of ciprofloxacin-resistant causal uropathogen, renal abscess, underlying chronic bacterial prostatitis, metastatic infectious foci and inability to obtain follow-up. The primary endpoint is the clinical cure rate through the 10- to 18-day post-treatment visit. Secondary endpoints are the microbiological cure rate 10- to 18-day post-treatment, the 30- and 90-day overall mortality rate, the clinical cure rate 70- to 84-day post-treatment, relapse rate of UTI and adverse events or complications during 90 days of follow-up. DISCUSSION: This study aims to demonstrate that 7 days of antimicrobial treatment is non-inferior as compared with 14 days of treatment in patients with febrile urinary tract infection. In addition, it will generate insights into the side-effects of antimicrobial treatment in relation to its duration. The study population will also include men, the elderly and patients with significant co-morbidity. Reflecting daily practice of primary health care and emergency departments, the results of this study can be generalized to other locations.

Page last updated: 2009-10-20

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