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Low-dose priming before vaccination with the phase I chloroform-methanol residue vaccine against Q fever enhances humoral and cellular immune responses to Coxiella burnetii.

Author(s): Waag DM, England MJ, Bolt CR, Williams JC

Affiliation(s): Bacteriology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. david.waag@amedd.army.mil

Publication date & source: 2008-10, Clin Vaccine Immunol., 15(10):1505-12. Epub 2008 Aug 13.

Publication type: Clinical Trial, Phase I; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Although the phase I Coxiella burnetii cellular vaccine is completely efficacious in humans, adverse local and systemic reactions may develop if immune individuals are inadvertently vaccinated. The phase I chloroform-methanol residue (CMRI) vaccine was developed as a potentially safer alternative. Human volunteers with no evidence of previous exposure to C. burnetii received a subcutaneous vaccination with the CMRI vaccine in phase I studies under protocol IND 3516 to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. This clinical trial tested escalating doses of the CMRI vaccine, ranging from 0.3 to 60 microg, followed by a booster dose of 30 microg, in a placebo-controlled study. Although priming doses of the CMRI vaccine did not induce a specific antibody detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, booster vaccination stimulated the production of significant levels of anti-C. burnetii antibody. Peripheral blood cells (PBCs) of vaccinees responded to C. burnetii cellular antigen in vitro in a vaccine dose-dependent manner. After the booster dose, PBCs were activated by recall antigen in vitro, regardless of the priming dose. These findings suggest that vaccination with the CMRI vaccine can effectively prime the immune system to mount significant anamnestic responses after infection.

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