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Activities of the combination of quinupristin-dalfopristin with rifampin in vitro and in experimental endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus strains with various phenotypes of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics.

Author(s): Zarrouk V, Bozdogan B, Leclercq R, Garry L, Feger C, Carbon C, Fantin B

Affiliation(s): Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, EMI 9933, Hopital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris, France.

Publication date & source: 2001-04, Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 45(4):1244-8.

We evaluated the activities of quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D), alone or in combination with rifampin, against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus susceptible to rifampin (MIC, 0.06 microg/ml) and to Q-D (MICs, 0.5 to 1 microg/ml) but displaying various phenotypes of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics: S. aureus HM1054 was susceptible to quinupristin and dalfopristin (MICs of 8 and 4 microg/ml, respectively); for S. aureus RP13, the MIC of dalfopristin was high (MICs of quinupristin and dalfopristin for strain RP13, 8 and 32 microg/ml, respectively); and S. aureus HM1054R was obtained after conjugative transfer of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B constitutive resistance to HM1054, and the MIC of quinupristin for this strain was high (MICs of quinupristin and dalfopristin, 64 and 4 microg/ml, respectively). In vitro time-kill curve studies showed an additive effect [corrected] between Q-D and rifampin, at a concentration of four times the MIC, against the three strains. Rabbits with aortic endocarditis were treated 4 days with Q-D, rifampin, or their combination. In vivo, the combination was highly bactericidal and synergistic against strains susceptible to quinupristin (HM1054 and RP13) and sterilized 94% of the animals. In contrast, the combination was neither synergistic nor bactericidal against the quinupristin-resistant strain (HM1054R) and did not prevent the emergence of mutants resistant to rifampin. We conclude that the in vivo synergistic and bactericidal activity of the combination of Q-D and rifampin against S. aureus is predicted by the absence of resistance to quinupristin but not by in vitro combination studies.

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