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Active ingredient: Pentamidine - Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Brands, Medical Use, Clinical Data

Drug Category

  • Trypanocidal Agents
  • Antiprotozoal Agents
  • Antifungal Agents

Dosage Forms

  • Powder for solution

Brands / Synonyms

4, 4'-Diamidinodiphenoxypentane; Nebupent; Pentacarinat; Pentam; Pentam 300; Pentamide; Pentamidine Isethionate; Pneumopent ; PNT


For the treatment of pneumonia due to Pneumocystis carinii.


Pentamidine is an antiprotozoal agent. It is an aromatic diamidine, and is known to have activity against Pneumocystis carinii. The exact nature of its antiprotozoal action is unknown. in vitro studies with mammalian tissues and the protozoan Crithidia oncopelti indicate that the drug interferes with nuclear metabolism producing inhibition of the synthesis of DNA, RNA, phospholipids and proteins. Little is known about the drug's pharmacokinetics. The medication is also useful in Leishmaniasis and in prophylaxis against sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Hydration before treatment lessens the incidence and severity of side effects, which include liver or kidney dysfunction, hypertension, hypotension, hypoglycemia, hypocalemia, leukopenia, thrombcytopenia, anemia, and allergic reaction. It is generally well-tolerated.

Mechanism of Action

The mode of action of pentamidine is not fully understood. It is thought that the drug interferes with nuclear metabolism producing inhibition of the synthesis of DNA, RNA, phospholipids, and proteins.


Absorbed poorly through the gastrointestinal tract and is usually administered parenterally.


Symptoms of overdose include pain, nausea, anorexia, hypotension, fever, rash, bad taste in mouth, confusion/hallucinations, dizziness, and diarrhea.

Biotrnasformation / Drug Metabolism



Once the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia has been firmly established, there are no absolute contraindications to the use of pentamidine isethionate.

Drug Interactions

Not Available

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