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Amlodipine and Atorvastatin (Amlodipine Besylate / Atorvastatin Calcium) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

Studies with Amlodipine

In vitro data in human plasma indicate that amlodipine has no effect on the protein binding of drugs tested (digoxin, phenytoin, warfarin, and indomethacin).

Cimetidine

Co-administration of amlodipine with cimetidine did not alter the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine.

Grapefruit Juice

Co-administration of 240 mL of grapefruit juice with a single oral dose of amlodipine 10 mg in 20 healthy volunteers had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine.

Magnesium and Aluminum Hydroxide Antacid

Co-administration of magnesium and aluminum hydroxide antacid with a single dose of amlodipine had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine.

Sildenafil

A single 100 mg dose of sildenafil in subjects with essential hypertension had no effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of amlodipine. When amlodipine and sildenafil were used in combination, each agent independently exerted its own blood pressure lowering effect.

Digoxin

Co-administration of amlodipine with digoxin did not change serum digoxin levels or digoxin renal clearance in normal volunteers.

Ethanol (Alcohol)

Single and multiple 10 mg doses of amlodipine had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of ethanol.

Warfarin

Co-administration of amlodipine with warfarin did not change the warfarin prothrombin response time.

CYP3A4 Inhibitors

Co-administration of a 180 mg daily dose of diltiazem with 5 mg amlodipine in elderly hypertensive patients resulted in a 60% increase in amlodipine systemic exposure. Erythromycin co-administration in healthy volunteers did not significantly change amlodipine systemic exposure. However, strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir) may increase the plasma concentrations of amlodipine to a greater extent. Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and edema when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A4 inhibitors.

CYP3A4 Inducers

No information is available on the quantitative effects of CYP3A4 inducers on amlodipine. Blood pressure should be closely monitored when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A4 inducers.

OVERDOSAGE

There is no information on overdosage with amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium tablets in humans.

Information on Amlodipine

Overdosage might be expected to cause excessive peripheral vasodilation with marked hypotension and possibly a reflex tachycardia. In humans, experience with intentional overdosage of amlodipine is limited.

Single oral doses of amlodipine maleate equivalent to 40 mg amlodipine/kg and 100 mg amlodipine/kg in mice and rats, respectively, caused deaths. Single oral amlodipine maleate doses equivalent to 4 or more mg amlodipine/kg in dogs (11 or more times the maximum recommended clinical dose on a mg/m2 basis) caused a marked peripheral vasodilation and hypotension.

If overdose should occur, initiate active cardiac and respiratory monitoring. Perform frequent blood pressure measurements. Should hypotension occur, provide cardiovascular support including elevation of the extremities and administration of fluids. If hypotension remains unresponsive to these conservative measures, consider administration of vasopressors (such as phenylephrine) with specific attention to circulating volume and urine output. As amlodipine is highly protein bound, hemodialysis is not likely to be of benefit.

Information on Atorvastatin

There is no specific treatment for atorvastatin overdosage. In the event of an overdose, the patient should be treated symptomatically, and supportive measures instituted as required. Due to extensive drug binding to plasma proteins, hemodialysis is not expected to significantly enhance atorvastatin clearance.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium tablets contain atorvastatin and are therefore contraindicated in patients with active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminase levels.

Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any component of this medication.

Pregnancy and Lactation

Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium tablets contain atorvastatin and are therefore contraindicated in women who are pregnant or may become pregnant. The atorvastatin component of amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium tablets may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides increase during normal pregnancy, and cholesterol or cholesterol derivatives are essential for fetal development. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on the outcome of long-term therapy of primary hypercholesterolemia.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of atorvastatin use during pregnancy; however in rare reports congenital anomalies were observed following intrauterine exposure to statins. In rat and rabbit animal reproduction studies, atorvastatin revealed no evidence of teratogenicity. AMLODIPINE BESYLATE/ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM TABLETS, WHICH INCLUDE ATORVASTATIN, SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED TO WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE ONLY WHEN SUCH PATIENTS ARE HIGHLY UNLIKELY TO CONCEIVE AND HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARDS. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, therapy should be discontinued immediately and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus (see PRECAUTIONS, Pregnancy).

It is not known whether atorvastatin or amlodipine are excreted into human milk; however a small amount of another statin does pass into breast milk. Because statins have the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women taking amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium tablets should not breastfeed their infants (see PRECAUTIONS, Nursing Mothers).

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