DrugLib.com — Drug Information Portal

Rx drug information, pharmaceutical research, clinical trials, news, and more

Epipen (Epinephrine Injection) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology

 
 



DESCRIPTION

Each EpiPen® Auto-Injector delivers a single dose of 0.3 mg epinephrine injection, USP, 1:1000 (0.3 mL) in a sterile solution.

Each EpiPen® Jr Auto-Injector delivers a single dose of 0.15 mg epinephrine injection, USP, 1:2000 (0.3 mL) in a sterile solution.

The EpiPen® and EpiPen® Jr Auto-Injectors each contain 2 mL epinephrine solution. Approximately 1.7 mL remains in the auto-injector after activation and cannot be used.

Each 0.3 mL in the EpiPen® Auto-Injector contains 0.3 mg epinephrine, 1.8 mg sodium chloride, 0.5 mg sodium metabisulfite, hydrochloric acid to adjust pH, and Water for Injection.
The pH range is 2.2-5.0. Each 0.3 mL in the EpiPen® Jr Auto-Injector contains 0.15 mg epinephrine, 1.8 mg sodium chloride, 0.5 mg sodium metabisulfite, hydrochloric acid to adjust pH, and Water for Injection. The pH range is 2.2-5.0.

Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic catecholamine. Chemically, epinephrine is B-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-a-methyl-aminoethanol, with the following structure:

Epinephrine solution deteriorates rapidly on exposure to air or light, turning pink from oxidation to adrenochrome and brown from the formation of melanin. Replace EpiPen® and EpiPen® Jr Auto-Injectors if the epinephrine solution appears discolored.

EpiPen® and EpiPen® Jr Auto-Injectors do not contain latex.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Epinephrine is the drug of choice for the emergency treatment of severe allergic reactions (Type I) to insect stings or bites, foods, drugs, and other allergens. It can also be used in the treatment of anaphylaxis of unknown cause (idiopathic anaphylaxis) or exercise-induced anaphylaxis. When given intramuscularly or subcutaneously it has a rapid onset and short duration of action. Epinephrine acts on both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. Through its action on alpha adrenergic receptors, epinephrine lessens the vasodilation and increased vascular permeability that occurs during anaphylaxis, which can lead to loss of intravascular fluid volume and hypotension. Through its action on beta-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine causes bronchial smooth muscle relaxation that helps alleviate bronchospasm, wheezing and dyspnea that may occur during anaphylaxis. Epinephrine also alleviates pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema and may be effective in relieving gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms associated with anaphylaxis because of its relaxer effects on the smooth muscle of the stomach, intestine, uterus, and urinary bladder.

-- advertisement -- The American Red Cross
 
Home | About Us | Contact Us | Site usage policy | Privacy policy

All Rights reserved - Copyright DrugLib.com, 2006-2017