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Evoclin (Clindamycin Phosphate Topical) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology

 
 



DESCRIPTION

EVOCLIN (clindamycin phosphate) Foam contains clindamycin (1%) as clindamycin phosphate.

Clindamycin phosphate is a water-soluble ester of the semi-synthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent antibiotic, lincomycin.

The chemical name for clindamycin phosphate is methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl-trans-4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L-threo-α-D-galacto-octopyranoside 2-(dihydrogen phosphate). The structural formula for clindamycin phosphate is represented below:

Molecular Formula: C18H34ClN2O8PS                                     Molecular Weight: 504.97 g/mol

EVOCLIN Foam contains clindamycin (1%) as clindamycin phosphate, at a concentration equivalent to 10 mg clindamycin per gram in a thermolabile hydroethanolic foam vehicle consisting of cetyl alcohol, ethanol (58%), polysorbate 60, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, purified water, and stearyl alcohol pressurized with a hydrocarbon (propane/butane) propellant.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Mechanism of action in acne vulgaris is unknown. [See Microbiology]

Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacodynamics of EVOCLIN Foam is unknown.

Pharmacokinetics

In an open label, parallel group study in 24 subjects with acne vulgaris, 12 subjects (3 male and 9 female) applied 4 grams of EVOCLIN Foam once-daily for five days, and 12 subjects (7 male and 5 female) applied 4 grams of a clindamycin gel, 1%, once daily for five days. On Day 5, the mean Cmax and AUC(0-12) were 23% and 9% lower, respectively, for EVOCLIN Foam than for the clindamycin gel, 1%.

Following multiple applications of EVOCLIN Foam, less than 0.024% of the total dose was excreted unchanged in the urine over 12 hours on Day 5.

Microbiology

No microbiology studies were conducted in the clinical trials with this product.

Clindamycin binds to the 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible bacteria and prevents elongation of peptide chains by interfering with peptidyl transfer, thereby suppressing protein synthesis. Clindamycin has been shown to have in vitro activity against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), an organism that has been associated with acne vulgaris; however, the clinical significance of this activity against P. acnes was not examined in clinical studies with EVOCLIN Foam. P. acnes resistance to clindamycin has been documented.

Inducible Clindamycin Resistance

The treatment of acne with antimicrobials is associated with the development of antimicrobial resistance in P. acnes as well as other bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes). The use of clindamycin may result in developing inducible resistance in these organisms. This resistance is not detected by routine susceptibility testing.

Cross Resistance

Resistance to clindamycin is often associated with resistance to erythromycin.

NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The carcinogenicity of a 1.2% clindamycin phosphate gel similar to EVOCLIN Foam was evaluated by daily application to mice for two years. The daily doses used in this study were approximately 3 and 15 times higher than the human dose of clindamycin phosphate from 5 milliliters of EVOCLIN Foam, assuming complete absorption and based on a body surface area comparison. No significant increase in tumors was noted in the treated animals.

A 1.2% clindamycin phosphate gel similar to EVOCLIN Foam caused a statistically significant shortening of the median time to tumor onset in a study in hairless mice in which tumors were induced by exposure to simulated sunlight.

Genotoxicity tests performed included a rat micronucleus test and an Ames Salmonella reversion test. Both tests were negative.

Reproduction studies in rats using oral doses of clindamycin hydrochloride and clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility.

CLINICAL STUDIES

In one multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trial, subjects with mild to moderate acne vulgaris used EVOCLIN Foam or the vehicle Foam once daily for twelve weeks. Treatment response, defined as the proportion of subjects clear or almost clear, based on the Investigator Static Global Assessment (ISGA), and the mean percent reductions in lesion counts at the end of treatment in this study are shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Efficacy Results at Week 12

Efficacy Parameters

EVOCLIN Foam

N=386

Vehicle Foam

N=127

Treatment response (ISGA)

31%

18% 1

Percent reduction in lesion counts

Inflammatory Lesions

49%

35%

Noninflammatory Lesions

38%

27%

Total Lesions

43%

31%

1 P < 0.05

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