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Fludarabine Injection (Fludarabine Phosphate Injection) - Side Effects and Adverse Reactions

 
 



ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most common adverse events include myelosuppression (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia), fever and chills, infection, and nausea and vomiting. Other commonly reported events include malaise, fatigue, anorexia, and weakness. Serious opportunistic infections have occurred in CLL patients treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP. Adverse events and those reactions which are more clearly related to the drug are arranged below according to body system.

Hematopoietic Systems: Hematologic events (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and/or anemia) were reported in the majority of CLL patients treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP. During Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP treatment of 133 patients with CLL, the absolute neutrophil count decreased to less than 500/mm3 in 59% of patients, hemoglobin decreased from pretreatment values by at least 2 grams percent in 60%, and platelet count decreased from pretreatment values by at least 50% in 55%. Myelosuppression may be severe, cumulative, and may affect multiple cell lines. Bone marrow fibrosis occurred in one CLL patient treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP.

Several instances of trilineage bone marrow hypoplasia or aplasia resulting in pancytopenia, sometimes resulting in death, have been reported in postmarketing surveillance. The duration of clinically significant cytopenia in the reported cases has ranged from approximately 2 months to approximately 1 year. These episodes have occurred both in previously treated or untreated patients.

Life-threatening and sometimes fatal autoimmune phenomena such as hemolytic anemia, autoimmune thrombocytopenia/thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), Evan's syndrome, and acquired hemophilia have been reported to occur in patients receiving Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP (see WARNINGS section). The majority of patients rechallenged with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP developed a recurrence in the hemolytic process.

In post-marketing experience, cases of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, mainly associated with prior, concomitant or subsequent treatment with alkylating agents, topoisomerase inhibitors, or irradiation have been reported.

Infections: Serious, and sometimes fatal infections, including opportunistic infections and reactivations of latent viral infections such as VZV (Herpes zoster), Epstein-Barr virus and JC virus (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) have been reported in patients treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP.

Rare cases of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disorders have been reported in patients treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP.

Metabolic: Tumor lysis syndrome has been reported in CLL patients treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP. This complication may include hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hematuria, urate crystalluria, and renal failure. The onset of this syndrome may be heralded by flank pain and hematuria.

Nervous System: (See WARNINGS section) Objective weakness, agitation, confusion, seizures, visual disturbances, optic neuritis, optic neuropathy, blindness and coma have occurred in CLL patients treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP at the recommended dose. Peripheral neuropathy has been observed in patients treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP and one case of wrist-drop was reported.

In post-marketing experience, cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy have been reported. Most cases had a fatal outcome. Many of these cases were confounded by prior and/or concurrent chemotherapy. The time to onset has ranged from a few weeks to approximately one year after initiating treatment.

Pulmonary System: Pneumonia, a frequent manifestation of infection in CLL patients, occurred in 16%, and 22% of those treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP in the MDAH and SWOG studies, respectively. Pulmonary hypersensitivity reactions to Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP characterized by dyspnea, cough and interstitial pulmonary infiltrate have been observed.

In post-marketing experience, cases of severe pulmonary toxicity have been observed with fludarabine phosphate use which resulted in ARDS, respiratory distress, pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary fibrosis, and respiratory failure. After an infectious origin has been excluded, some patients experienced symptom improvement with corticosteroids.

Gastrointestinal System: Gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, stomatitis and gastrointestinal bleeding have been reported in patients treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP.

Cardiovascular: Edema has been frequently reported. One patient developed a pericardial effusion possibly related to treatment with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP. No other severe cardiovascular events were considered to be drug related.

Genitourinary System: Rare cases of hemorrhagic cystitis have been reported in patients treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP.

Skin: Skin toxicity, consisting primarily of skin rashes, has been reported in patients treated with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP.

Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and pemphigus have been reported, with fatal outcomes in some cases.

Worsening or flare up of pre-existing skin cancer lesions, as well as new onset of skin cancer, has been reported in patients during or after treatment with Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP.

Data in the following table are derived from the 133 patients with CLL who received Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP in the MDAH and SWOG studies.

PERCENT OF CLL PATIENTS REPORTING NON-HEMATOLOGIC ADVERSE EVENTS
ADVERSE EVENTS MDAH (N=101) SWOG (N=32)
ANY ADVERSE EVENT 88% 91%
BODY AS A WHOLE 72 84
   FEVER 60 69
   CHILLS 11 19
   FATIGUE 10 38
   INFECTION 33 44
   PAIN 20 22
   MALAISE 8 6
   DIAPHORESIS 1 13
   ALOPECIA 0 3
   ANAPHYLAXIS 1 0
   HEMORRHAGE 1 0
   HYPERGLYCEMIA 1 6
   DEHYDRATION 1 0
NEUROLOGICAL 21 69
   WEAKNESS 9 65
   PARESTHESIA 4 12
   HEADACHE 3 0
   VISUAL DISTURBANCE 3 15
   HEARING LOSS 2 6
   SLEEP DISORDER 1 3
   DEPRESSION 1 0
   CEREBELLAR SYNDROME 1 0
   IMPAIRED MENTATION 1 0
PULMONARY 35 69
   COUGH 10 44
   PNEUMONIA 16 22
   DYSPNEA 9 22
   SINUSITIS 5 0
   PHARYNGITIS 0 9
   UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION 2 16
   ALLERGIC PNEUMONITIS 0 6
PERCENT OF CLL PATIENTS REPORTING NON-HEMATOLOGIC ADVERSE EVENTS
ADVERSE EVENTS MDAH (N=101) SWOG (N=32)
   EPISTAXIS 1 0
   HEMOPTYSIS 1 6
   BRONCHITIS 1 0
   HYPOXIA 1 0
GASTROINTESTINAL 46 63
   NAUSEA/VOMITING 36 31
   DIARRHEA 15 13
   ANOREXIA 7 34
   STOMATITIS 9 0
   GI BLEEDING 3 13
   ESOPHAGITIS 3 0
   MUCOSITIS 2 0
   LIVER FAILURE 1 0
   ABNORMAL LIVER FUNCTION TEST 1 3
   CHOLELITHIASIS 0 3
   CONSTIPATION 1 3
   DYSPHAGIA 1 0
CUTANEOUS 17 18
   RASH 15 15
   PRURITUS 1 3
   SEBORRHEA 1 0
GENITOURINARY 12 22
   DYSURIA 4 3
   URINARY INFECTION 2 15
   HEMATURIA 2 3
   RENAL FAILURE 1 0
   ABNORMAL RENAL FUNCTION TEST 1 0
   PROTEINURIA 1 0
   HESITANCY 0 3
CARDIOVASCULAR 12 38
PERCENT OF CLL PATIENTS REPORTING NON-HEMATOLOGIC ADVERSE EVENTS
ADVERSE EVENTS MDAH (N=101) SWOG (N=32)
   EDEMA 8 19
   ANGINA 0 6
   CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE 0 3
   ARRHYTHMIA 0 3
   SUPRAVENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA 0 3
   MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION 0 3
   DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS 1 3
   PHLEBITIS 1 3
   TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK 1 0
   ANEURYSM 1 0
   CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT 0 3
MUSCULOSKELETAL 7 16
   MYALGIA 4 16
   OSTEOPOROSIS 2 0
   ARTHRALGIA 1 0
   TUMOR LYSIS SYNDROME 1 0

More than 3000 adult patients received Fludarabine Phosphate for Injection, USP in studies of other leukemias, lymphomas, and other solid tumors. The spectrum of adverse effects reported in these studies was consistent with the data presented above.

Drug label data at the top of this Page last updated: 2009-02-01

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