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Isovue (Iopamidol Intravascular) - Description and Clinical Pharmacology


ISOVUE 200, 250, 300 and 370 are NOT FOR INTRATHECAL USE.
See Indications, and Dosage and Administration sections for further details
on proper use
For Angiography Throughout the Cardiovascular
System, Including Cerebral and Peripheral Arteriography,
Coronary Arteriography and Ventriculography,
Pediatric Angiocardiography, Selective Visceral
Arteriography and Aortography,
Peripheral Venography (Phlebography), and
Adult and Pediatric Intravenous Excretory
Urography and Intravenous Adult and Pediatric
Contrast Enhancement of Computed Tomographic
(CECT) Head and Body Imaging


ISOVUE (lopamidol Injection) formulations are stable, aqueous, sterile, and nonpyrogenic solutions for intravascular administration.

Each mL of ISOVUE-200 (lopamidol Injection 41%) provides 408 mg iopamidol with 1 mg tromethamine and 0.26 mg edetate calcium disodium. The solution contains approximately 0.029 mg (0.001 mEq) sodium and 200 mg organically bound iodine per mL.

Each mL of ISOVUE-250 (lopamidol Injection 51%) provides 510 mg iopamidol with 1 mg tromethamine and 0. 33 mg edetate calcium disodium. The solution contains approximately 0.036 mg (0.002 mEq) sodium and 250 mg organically bound iodine per mL.

Each mL of ISOVUE-300 (lopamidol Injection 61%) provides 612 mg iopamidol with 1 mg tromethamine and 0.39 mg edetate calcium disodium. The solution contains approximately 0.043 mg (0.002 mEq) sodium and 300 mg organically bound iodine per mL.

Each mL of ISOVUE-370 (lopamidol Injection 76%) provides 755 mg iopamidol with 1 mg tromethamine and 0.48 mg edetate calcium disodium. The solution contains approximately 0.053 mg (0.002 mEq) sodium and 370 mg organically bound iodine per mL.

The pH of ISOVUE contrast media has been adjusted to 6.5-7.5 with hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. Pertinent physicochemical data are noted below. ISOVUE (lopamidol Injection) is hypertonic as compared to plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (approximately 285 and 301 mOsm/kg water, respectively).

Parameter  41% 51% 61% Iopamidol
200 250 300 370
Osmolality @ 37° C
(mOsm/kg water) 
413 524 616 796
Viscosity (cP) @ 37° C 2.0 3.0 4.7  9.4
@ 20° C 3.3 5.1 8.8 20.9
Specific Gravity @ 37° C  1.227 1.281 1.339  1.405

lopamidol is designated chemically as (S)-N,N’-bis[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-ethyl]-2,4,6-triiodo-5-lactamidoisophthalamide. Structural formula:

MW 777.09
Organically Bound Iodine: 49%


Intravascular injection of a radiopaque diagnostic agent opacifies those vessels in the path of flow of the contrast medium, permitting radiographic visualization of the internal structures of the human body until significant hemodilution occurs.

Following intravascular injection, radiopaque diagnostic agents are immediately diluted in the circulating plasma. Calculations of apparent volume of distribution at steady-state indicate that iopamidol is distributed between the circulating blood volume and other extracellular fluid; there appears to be no significant deposition of iopamidol in tissues. Uniform distribution of iopamidol in extracellular fluid is reflected by its demonstrated utility in contrast enhancement of computed tomographic imaging of the head and body following intravenous administration.

The pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered iopamidol in normal subjects conform to an open two-compartment model with first order elimination (a rapid alpha phase for drug distribution and a slow beta phase for drug elimination). The elimination serum or plasma half-life is approximately two hours; the half-life is not dose dependent. No significant metabolism, deiodination, or biotransformation occurs.

Iopamidol is excreted mainly through the kidneys following intravascular administration. In patients with impaired renal function, the elimination half-life is prolonged dependent upon the degree of impairment. In the absence of renal dysfunction, the cumulative urinary excretion for Iopamidol, expressed as a percentage of administered intravenous dose is approximately 35 to 40 percent at 60 minutes, 80 to 90 percent at 8 hours, and 90 percent or more in the 72- to 96-hour period after administration. In normal subjects, approximately one percent or less of the administered dose appears in cumulative 72- to 96-hour fecal specimens.

ISOVUE may be visualized in the renal parenchyma within 30-60 seconds following rapid intravenous administration. Opacification of the calyces and pelves in patients with normal renal function becomes apparent within 1 to 3 minutes, with optimum contrast occurring between 5 and 15 minutes. In patients with renal impairment, contrast visualization may be delayed.

Iopamidol displays little tendency to bind to serum or plasma proteins.

No evidence of in vivo complement activation has been found in normal subjects.

Animal studies indicate that iopamidol does not cross the blood-brain barrier to any significant extent following intravascular administration.

ISOVUE (lopamidol Injection) enhances computed tomographic brain imaging through augmentation of radiographic efficiency. The degree of enhancement of visualization of tissue density is directly related to the iodine content in an administered dose; peak iodine blood levels occur immediately following rapid injection of the dose. These levels fall rapidly within five to ten minutes. This can be accounted for by the dilution in the vascular and extracellular fluid compartments which causes an initial sharp fall in plasma concentration. Equilibration with the extracellular compartments is reached in about ten minutes, thereafter the fall becomes exponential. Maximum contrast enhancement frequently occurs after peak blood iodine levels are reached. The delay in maximum contrast enhancement can range from five to forty minutes depending on the peak iodine levels achieved and the cell type of the lesion. This lag suggests that radiographic contrast enhancement is at least in part dependent on the accumulation of iodine within the lesion and outside the blood pool, although the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. The radiographic enhancement of nontumoral lesions, such as arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms, is probably dependent on the iodine content of the circulating blood pool.

In CECT head imaging, ISOVUE (lopamidol Injection) does not accumulate in normal brain tissue due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier. The increase in x-ray absorption in normal brain is due to the presence of contrast agent within the blood pool. A break in the blood-brain barrier such as occurs in malignant tumors of the brain allows the accumulation of the contrast medium within the interstitial tissue of the tumor. Adjacent normal brain tissue does not contain the contrast medium.

In nonneural tissues (during computed tomography of the body), iopamidol diffuses rapidly from the vascular into the extravascular space. Increase in x-ray absorption is related to blood flow, concentration of the contrast medium, and extraction of the contrast medium by interstitial tissue of tumors since no barrier exists. Contrast enhancement is thus due to the relative differences in extravascular diffusion between normal and abnormal tissue, quite different from that in the brain.

The pharmacokinetics of iopamidol in both normal and abnormal tissue have been shown to be variable. Contrast enhancement appears to be greatest soon after administration of the contrast medium, and following intraarterial rather than intravenous administration. Thus, greatest enhancement can be detected by a series of consecutive two- to three-second scans performed just after injection (within 30 to 90 seconds), i.e., dynamic computed tomographic imaging.

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