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Ketamine (Ketamine Hydrochloride) - Summary



Injection, USP

Ketamine hydrochloride is a nonbarbiturate anesthetic chemically designated (±)-2-(o -Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride. It is formulated as a slightly acid (pH 3.5 to 5.5) sterile solution for intravenous or intramuscular injection in concentrations containing the equivalent of either 50 or 100 mg ketamine base per milliliter and contains not more than 0.1 mg/mL benzethonium chloride added as a preservative.

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. Ketamine hydrochloride injection is best suited for short procedures but it can be used, with additional doses, for longer procedures.

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents.

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated to supplement low-potency agents, such as nitrous oxide.

Specific areas of application are described in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section.

See all Ketamine indications & dosage >>


Media Articles Related to Ketamine

Can the Anesthetic Ketamine Ease Suicidal Thoughts?
Source: MedicineNet Electroconvulsive Therapy Specialty [2016.05.11]
Title: Can the Anesthetic Ketamine Ease Suicidal Thoughts?
Category: Health News
Created: 5/10/2016 12:00:00 AM
Last Editorial Review: 5/11/2016 12:00:00 AM

more news >>

Published Studies Related to Ketamine

Randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial of propofol, 1:1 propofol/ketamine, and 4:1 propofol/ketamine for deep procedural sedation in the emergency department. [2015]
propofol and ketamine (ketofol)... CONCLUSION: We found a similar frequency of airway and respiratory adverse events

Neurocognitive effects of ketamine and association with antidepressant response in individuals with treatment-resistant depression: a randomized controlled trial. [2015]
The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine displays rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD); however, the potential for adverse neurocognitive effects in this population has not received adequate study...

A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled study of topical amitriptyline and ketamine for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN): a University of Rochester CCOP study of 462 cancer survivors. [2014]
efficacy of 2% ketamine plus 4% amitriptyline (KA) cream for reducing CIPN... CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that KA cream does not decrease CIPN symptoms in

Effects of intra-operative ketamine administration on postoperative catheter-related bladder discomfort: a double-blind clinical trial. [2014]
postoperative period when compared to placebo... CONCLUSION: Preemptive administration of IV ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) can reduce

Low-dose ketamine improves pain relief in patients receiving intravenous opioids for acute pain in the emergency department: results of a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. [2014]
patients... CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose ketamine is a viable analgesic adjunct to morphine for the

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Clinical Trials Related to Ketamine

Ketamine Associated With Morphine PCA After Total Hip Arthroplasty [Completed]
Ketamine (an analgesic drug often associated with morphine in the treatment of Opioid Induced Hyperalgesia) is often mixed in Morphine PCA syringe. We make the hypothesis that ketamine administrated separately via a continuous infusion, could induced a better analgesic effect. We will perform a randomised double blind study to determine the best infusion mode of intravenous ketamine, associated with morphine in PCA syringe or alone in continuous infusion.

Low Dose Ketamine for Management of Acute Severe Pain in the Emergency Department [Completed]
This study aims to address both the management and evaluation of pain. The primary aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of low dose ketamine in adults with moderate to severe pain in the emergency department as compared with parenteral opioids alone. Another aim is to examine the safety of low dose ketamine compared to opioids alone. The investigators hypothesize that low dose ketamine will result in more effective pain control than morphine alone and will not be associated with an increase in adverse events.

Methadone and Ketamine for Neuropathic Pain Treatment [Completed]
Methadone and ketamine are effective for neuropathic pain management. However, the benefits of the association of both drugs are uncertain. Here, the investigators conducted a randomized, double-blind, in parallel, active controlled clinical trial to test the hypothesis that methadone combined ketamine (methadone/ketamine) is more effective than methadone or ketamine alone in reducing neuropathic pain.

Emergency Ketamine Treatment of Suicidal Ideation [Not yet recruiting]
The objective of the current program of research will be to test whether intranasal ketamine treatment is more effective than placebo in reducing suicidal ideation in suicidal patients presenting for acute treatment in emergency department settings. Secondary objectives will test the effect of genotypic differences in the mu opioid receptor on efficacy of ketamine and the correlation of speech patterns and facial movement patterns with subjective reductions in suicidal ideation after ketamine treatment.

Action of Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Depression [Recruiting]
Depression carries the largest burden of all medical disorders in middle to high income countries, as determined by the World Health Organization. Despite many antidepressant strategies, only a third of patients get well after their first treatment and a third remain ill after several treatments. Moreover, antidepressant treatments all have a delayed action ranging up to several weeks. Ketamine (KET) has been used for decades as a sedative and anesthetic. In treatment-resistant depressed patients(TRD), an intravenous dose much lower than necessary for anesthesia may produce a robust antidepressant effect and may even abolish suicidal thoughts within hours, peaking within 24 hours. But, its antidepressant effect generally lasts only days. Previous studies examining KET in TRD have been critiqued for lack of an effective placebo measure due to brief perceptual experiences associated with KET. Thus, the current study compares KET against a short-acting sedative. The phases of this study compare response to a single KET injection to 6 injections over 2 weeks. Next, KET responders are given 1 injection a week for 3 weeks of either KET or the sedative agent to determine if beneficial effects of KET are maintained, and to assess duration of its benefits after repeated administration. The genetic profile of patients for a substance promoting contacts between cells and brain will be determined to investigate if response to KET could be predicted with that blood test. This substance, as well as several chemicals that produce inflammation, will also be measured in the blood to investigate their role in the effect of KET. Patients will receive, in total, no more than the equivalent of two to three anesthetic dose of KET. Results from this study will help establish the beneficial effects of a single KET injection as a rapid intervention for major depression, and to investigate the possibility of obtaining a prolonged antidepressant effect with repeated injections.

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Page last updated: 2016-05-11

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