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Symbyax (Olanzapine / Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

The risks of using SYMBYAX in combination with other drugs have not been extensively evaluated in systematic studies. The drug-drug interactions sections of fluoxetine and olanzapine are applicable to SYMBYAX. As with all drugs, the potential for interaction by a variety of mechanisms (e.g., pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic drug inhibition or enhancement, etc.) is a possibility. In evaluating individual cases, consideration should be given to using lower initial doses of the concomitantly administered drugs, using conservative titration schedules, and monitoring of clinical status [see Clinical Pharmacology ].

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)

SYMBYAX should not be used in combination with an MAOI, or within a minimum of 14 days of discontinuing therapy with an MAOI. There have been reports of serious, sometimes fatal reactions (including hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, and mental status changes that include extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma) in patients receiving fluoxetine in combination with an MAOI, and in patients who have recently discontinued fluoxetine and are then started on an MAOI. Some cases presented with features resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions]. Since fluoxetine and its major metabolite have very long elimination half-lives, at least 5weeks (perhaps longer, especially if fluoxetine has been prescribed chronically and/or at higher doses) should be allowed after stopping SYMBYAX before starting an MAOI. [See Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions and Clinical Pharmacology].

CNS Acting Drugs

Caution is advised if the concomitant administration of SYMBYAX and other CNS-active drugs is required. In evaluating individual cases, consideration should be given to using lower initial doses of the concomitantly administered drugs, using conservative titration schedules, and monitoring of clinical status [see Clinical Pharmacology ].

Serotonergic Drugs

Based on the mechanism of action of SNRIs and SSRIs, including SYMBYAX, and the potential for serotonin syndrome, caution is advised when SYMBYAX is coadministered with other drugs that may affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems, such as triptans, linezolid (an antibiotic which is a reversible non-selective MAOI), lithium, tramadol, or St. John's Wort [see Warnings and Precautions]. The concomitant use of SYMBYAX with SNRIs, SSRIs, or tryptophan is not recommended [see Drug Interactions ].

Triptans

There have been rare postmarketing reports of serotonin syndrome with use of an SSRI and a triptan. If concomitant treatment of SYMBYAX with a triptan is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases [see Warnings and Precautions].

Tryptophan

Five patients receiving fluoxetine in combination with tryptophan experienced adverse reactions, including agitation, restlessness, and gastrointestinal distress. Concomitant use with tryptophan is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions ].

Drugs that Interfere with Hemostasis(e.g., NSAIDs, Aspirin, Warfarin)

Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design that have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SNRIs or SSRIs are coadministered with warfarin [seeWarnings and Precautions]. Warfarin (20-mg single dose) did not affect olanzapine pharmacokinetics. Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin. Patients receiving warfarin therapy should be carefully monitored when SYMBYAX is initiated or discontinued.

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

There are no clinical studies establishing the benefit of the combined use of ECT and fluoxetine. There have been rare reports of prolonged seizures in patients on fluoxetine receiving ECT treatment [seeWarnings and Precautions (5.13)].

Potential for Other Drugs to Affect SYMBYAX

Benzodiazepines — Co-administration of diazepam with olanzapine potentiated the orthostatic hypotension observed with olanzapine [see Drug Interactions ].

Inducers of 1A2 — Carbamazepine therapy(200mgBID) causes an approximate50% increase in the clearance of olanzapine. This increase is likely due to the fact that carbamazepine is a potent inducer of CYP1A2 activity. Higher daily doses of carbamazepine may cause an even greater increase in olanzapine clearance [see Drug Interactions].

Alcohol — Ethanol (45 mg/70 kg single dose) did not have an effect on olanzapine pharmacokinetics [see Drug Interactions ].

Inhibitors of CYP1A2 — Fluvoxamine decreases the clearance of olanzapine. This results in a mean increase in olanzapine Cmax following fluvoxamine administration of 54%in female nonsmokers and 77%in male smokers. The mean increase in olanzapine AUC is52% and108%, respectively. Lower doses of the olanzapine component of SYMBYAX should be considered in patients receiving concomitant treatment with fluvoxamine.

The Effect of Other Drugs on Olanzapine — Fluoxetine, an inhibitor of CYP2D6, decreases olanzapine clearance a small amount [see Clinical Pharmacology]. Agents that induce CYP1A2 or glucuronyl transferase enzymes, such as omeprazole and rifampin, may cause an increase in olanzapine clearance. The effect of CYP1A2 inhibitors, such as fluvoxamine and some fluoroquinolone antibiotics, on SYMBYAX has not been evaluated. Although olanzapine is metabolized by multiple enzyme systems, induction or inhibition of a single enzyme may appreciably alter olanzapine clearance. Therefore, a dosage increase (for induction) or a dosage decrease (for inhibition) may need to be considered with specific drugs.

Potential for SYMBYAX to Affect Other Drugs

Pimozide — Concomitant use of fluoxetine and pimozide is contraindicated. Clinical studies of pimozide with other antidepressants demonstrate an increase in drug interaction or QTc prolongation. While a specific study with pimozide and fluoxetine has not been conducted, the potential for drug interactions or QTc prolongation warrants restricting the concurrent use of pimozide and fluoxetine. [See Contraindications (4)].

Carbamazepine — Patients on stable doses of carbamazepine have developed elevated plasma anticonvulsant concentrations and clinical anticonvulsant toxicity following initiation of concomitant fluoxetine treatment.

Alcohol — The coadministration of ethanol with SYMBYAX may potentiate sedation and orthostatic hypotension [see Drug Interactions ].

Thioridazine — Thioridazine should not be administered with SYMBYAX or administered within a minimum of 5weeks after discontinuation of SYMBYAX.

In a study of 19healthy male subjects, which included 6 slow and 13 rapid hydroxylators of debrisoquin, a single 25-mg oral dose of thioridazine produced a 2.4-fold higher Cmax and a 4.5-fold higher AUC for thioridazine in the slow hydroxylators compared with the rapid hydroxylators. The rate of debrisoquin hydroxylation is felt to depend on the level of CYP2D6 isozyme activity. Thus, this study suggests that drugs that inhibit CYP2D6, such as certain SSRIs, including fluoxetine, will produce elevated plasma levels of thioridazine [see Contraindications (4)].

Thioridazine administration produces a dose-related prolongation of the QTcinterval, which is associated with serious ventricular arrhythmias, such as torsades de pointes-type arrhythmias and sudden death. This risk is expected to increase with fluoxetine-induced inhibition of thioridazine metabolism [see Contraindications (4)].

Due to the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death potentially associated with elevated thioridazine plasma levels, thioridazine should not be administered with fluoxetine or within a minimum of 5 weeks after fluoxetine has been discontinued [see Contraindications (4)].

Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) — Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of imipramine or its active metabolite desipramine.

In 2fluoxetine studies, previously stable plasma levels of imipramine and desipramine have increased >2- to 10-fold when fluoxetine has been administered in combination. This influence may persist for 3weeks or longer after fluoxetine is discontinued. Thus, the dose of TCA may need to be reduced and plasma TCA concentrations may need to be monitored temporarily when SYMBYAX is coadministered or has been recently discontinued [see Clinical Pharmacology ].

Antihypertensive Agents — Because of the potential for olanzapine to induce hypotension, SYMBYAX may enhance the effects of certain antihypertensive agents [see Warnings and Precautions].

Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists — The olanzapine component of SYMBYAX may antagonize the effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists.

Benzodiazepines — Multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and its active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam.

When concurrently administered with fluoxetine, the half-life of diazepam may be prolonged in some patients [see Clinical Pharmacology ]. Coadministration of alprazolam and fluoxetine has resulted in increased alprazolam plasma concentrations and in further psychomotor performance decrement due to increased alprazolam levels.

Clozapine — Elevation of blood levels of clozapine has been observed in patients receiving concomitant fluoxetine.

Haloperidol — Elevation of blood levels of haloperidol has been observed in patients receiving concomitant fluoxetine.

Phenytoin — Patients on stable doses of phenytoin have developed elevated plasma levels of phenytoin with clinical phenytoin toxicity following initiation of concomitant fluoxetine.

Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6 — Invitro studies utilizing human liver microsomes suggest that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit CYP2D6. Thus, olanzapine is unlikely to cause clinically important drug interactions mediated by this enzyme.

Fluoxetine inhibits the activity of CYP2D6 and may make individuals with normal CYP2D6 metabolic activity resemble a poor metabolizer. Coadministration of fluoxetine with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6, including certain antidepressants (e.g., TCAs), antipsychotics (e.g., phenothiazines and most atypicals), and antiarrhythmics (e.g., propafenone, flecainide, and others) should be approached with caution. Therapy with medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP2D6 system and that have a relatively narrow therapeutic index should be initiated at the low end of the dose range if a patient is receiving fluoxetine concurrently or has taken it in the previous 5weeks. If fluoxetine is added to the treatment regimen of a patient already receiving a drug metabolized by CYP2D6, the need for a decreased dose of the original medication should be considered. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic index represent the greatest concern (including but not limited to, flecainide, propafenone, vinblastine, and TCAs).

Drugs Metabolized by CYP3A — Invitro studies utilizing human liver microsomes suggest that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit CYP3A. Thus, olanzapine is unlikely to cause clinically important drug interactions mediated by these enzymes.

In an invivo interaction study involving the coadministration of fluoxetine with single doses of terfenadine (a CYP3A substrate), no increase in plasma terfenadine concentrations occurred with concomitant fluoxetine. In addition, invitro studies have shown ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A activity, to be at least 100times more potent than fluoxetine or norfluoxetine as an inhibitor of the metabolism of several substrates for this enzyme, including astemizole, cisapride, and midazolam. These data indicate that fluoxetine's extent of inhibition of CYP3A activity is not likely to be of clinical significance.

Effect of Olanzapine on Drugs Metabolized by Other CYP Enzymes — Invitro studies utilizing human liver microsomes suggest that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Thus, olanzapine is unlikely to cause clinically important drug interactions mediated by these enzymes.

Lithium — Multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the pharmacokinetics of lithium.

There have been reports of both increased and decreased lithium levels when lithium was used concomitantly with fluoxetine. Cases of lithium toxicity and increased serotonergic effects have been reported. Lithium levels should be monitored in patients taking SYMBYAX concomitantly with lithium.

Drugs Tightly Bound to Plasma Proteins — The invitro binding of SYMBYAX to human plasma proteins is similar to the individual components. The interaction between SYMBYAX and other highly protein-bound drugs has not been fully evaluated. Because fluoxetine is tightly bound to plasma protein, the administration of fluoxetine to a patient taking another drug that is tightly bound to protein (e.g.,Coumadin, digitoxin) may cause a shift in plasma concentrations potentially resulting in an adverse effect. Conversely, adverse effects may result from displacement of protein-bound fluoxetine by other tightly bound drugs [see Clinical Pharmacology].

Valproate — Invitro studies using human liver microsomes determined that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit the major metabolic pathway, glucuronidation, of valproate. Further, valproate has little effect on the metabolism of olanzapine invitro. Thus, a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between olanzapine and valproate is unlikely.

Biperiden — Multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the pharmacokinetics of biperiden.

Theophylline — Multiple doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of theophylline or its metabolites.

OVERDOSAGE

SYMBYAX — During premarketing clinical studies of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, overdose of both fluoxetine and olanzapine were reported in 5 study subjects. Fourof the 5 subjects experienced loss of consciousness(3) or coma(1). No fatalities occurred.

Adverse reactions involving overdose of fluoxetine and olanzapine in combination, and SYMBYAX, have been reported spontaneously toEliLillyandCompany. An overdose of combination therapy is defined as confirmed or suspected ingestion of a dose of >20 mg olanzapine in combination with a dose of >80 mg fluoxetine. Adverse reactions associated with these reports included somnolence (sedation), impaired consciousness (coma), impaired neurologic function (ataxia, confusion, convulsions, dysarthria), arrhythmias, lethargy, essential tremor, agitation, acute psychosis, hypotension, hypertension, and aggression. Fatalities have been confounded by exposure to additional substances including alcohol, thioridazine, oxycodone, and propoxyphene.

Olanzapine — In postmarketing reports of overdose with olanzapine alone, symptoms have been reported in the majority of cases. In symptomatic patients, symptoms with ≥10%incidence included agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, tachycardia, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma. Among less commonly reported symptoms were the following potentially medically serious reactions: aspiration, cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiac arrhythmias (such as supraventricular tachycardia as well as a patient that experienced sinus pause with spontaneous resumption of normal rhythm), delirium, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression/arrest, convulsion, hypertension, and hypotension. EliLillyandCompany has received reports of fatality in association with overdose of olanzapine alone. In 1case of death, the amount of acutely ingested olanzapine was reported to be possibly as low as 450mg of oral olanzapine; however, in another case, a patient was reported to survive an acute olanzapine ingestion of approximately 2g of oral olanzapine.

Fluoxetine — Worldwide exposure to fluoxetine is estimated to be over 38million patients (circa1999). Of the 1578cases of overdose involving fluoxetine, alone or with other drugs, reported from this population, there were 195deaths.

Among 633adult patients who overdosed on fluoxetine alone, 34resulted in a fatal outcome, 378 completely recovered, and 15patients experienced sequelae after overdose, including abnormal accommodation, abnormal gait, confusion, unresponsiveness, nervousness, pulmonary dysfunction, vertigo, tremor, elevated blood pressure, impotence, movement disorder, and hypomania. The remaining 206patients had an unknown outcome. The most common signs and symptoms associated with non-fatal overdose were seizures, somnolence, nausea, tachycardia, and vomiting. The largest known ingestion of fluoxetine in adult patients was 8grams in a patient who took fluoxetine alone and who subsequently recovered. However, in an adult patient who took fluoxetine alone, an ingestion as low as 520mg has been associated with lethal outcome, but causality has not been established.

Among pediatric patients (ages 3months to 17years), there were 156cases of overdose involving fluoxetine alone or in combination with other drugs. Sixpatients died, 127patients completely recovered, 1patient experienced renal failure, and 22patients had an unknown outcome. One of the 6fatalities was a 9-year-old boy who had a history of OCD, Tourette's Syndrome with tics, attention deficit disorder, and fetal alcohol syndrome. He had been receiving 100mg of fluoxetine daily for 6months in addition to clonidine, methylphenidate, and promethazine. Mixed-drug ingestion or other methods of suicide complicated all 6overdoses in children that resulted in fatalities. The largest ingestion in pediatric patients was 3grams, which was non-lethal.

Other important adverse reactions reported with fluoxetine overdose (single or multiple drugs) included coma, delirium, ECG abnormalities (such as QT-interval prolongation and ventricular tachycardia, including torsades de pointes-type arrhythmias), hypotension, mania, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, pyrexia, stupor, and syncope.

Management of Overdose

In managing overdose, the possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. In case of acute overdose, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate ventilation, which may include intubation. Induction of emesis is not recommended as the possibility of obtundation, seizures, or dystonic reactions of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk for aspiration. Gastric lavage (after intubation, if patient is unconscious) and administration of activated charcoal together with a laxative should be considered. Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias.

A specific precaution involves patients who are taking or have recently taken SYMBYAX and may have ingested excessive quantities of a TCA(tricyclic antidepressant). In such cases, accumulation of the parent TCA and/or an active metabolite may increase the possibility of serious sequelae and extend the time needed for close medical observation.

Due to the large volume of distribution of olanzapine and fluoxetine, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit. No specific antidote for either fluoxetine or olanzapine overdose is known. Hypotension and circulatory collapse should be treated with appropriate measures such as intravenous fluids and/or sympathomimetic agents. Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetics with beta-agonist activity, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of olanzapine-induced alpha blockade.

The physician should consider contacting a poison control center for additional information on the treatment of any overdose. Telephone numbers for certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference(PDR).

CONTRAINDICATIONS

The use of SYMBYAX is contraindicated with the following:

  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors(MAOI) — [see Drug Interactions ]
  • Pimozide — [see Drug Interactions]
  • Thioridazine — [see Drug Interactions]

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Dependence

SYMBYAX, as with fluoxetine and olanzapine, has not been systematically studied in humans for its potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence. While the clinical studies did not reveal any tendency for any drug-seeking behavior, these observations were not systematic, and it is not possible to predict on the basis of this limited experience the extent to which a CNS-active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, physicians should carefully evaluate patients for history of drug abuse and follow such patients closely, observing them for signs of misuse or abuse of SYMBYAX (e.g.,development of tolerance, incrementation of dose, drug-seeking behavior).

In studies in rats and rhesusmonkeys designed to assess abuse and dependence potential, olanzapine alone was shown to have acute depressive CNS effects but little or no potential of abuse or physical dependence at oral doses up to 15(rat) and 8(monkey) times the MRHD(20mg) on a mg/m2 basis.

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