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Topamax (Topiramate) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

In vitro studies indicate that topiramate does not inhibit enzyme activity for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4/5 isozymes. In vitro studies indicate that topiramate is a mild inhibitor of CYP2C19 and a mild inducer of CYP3A4. Drug interactions with some antiepileptic drugs, CNS depressants and oral contraceptives are described here. For other drug interactions, please refer to Clinical Pharmacology .

Antiepileptic Drugs

Potential interactions between topiramate and standard AEDs were assessed in controlled clinical pharmacokinetic studies in patients with epilepsy. Concomitant administration of phenytoin or carbamazepine with topiramate decreased plasma concentrations of topiramate by 48% and 40%, respectively when compared to TOPAMAX® given alone [see Clinical Pharmacology.]

Concomitant administration of valproic acid and TOPAMAX® has been associated with hyperammonemia with and without encephalopathy. Concomitant administration of TOPAMAX® with valproic acid has also been associated with hypothermia (with and without hyperammonemia) in patients who have tolerated either drug alone. It may be prudent to examine blood ammonia levels in patients in whom the onset of hypothermia has been reported [see Warnings and Precautions, or Clinical Pharmacology].

CNS Depressants

Concomitant administration of TOPAMAX® and alcohol or other CNS depressant drugs has not been evaluated in clinical studies. Because of the potential of topiramate to cause CNS depression, as well as other cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric adverse reactions, TOPAMAX® should be used with extreme caution if used in combination with alcohol and other CNS depressants.

Oral Contraceptives

Exposure to ethinyl estradiol was statistically significantly decreased at doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/day (18%, 21%, and 30%, respectively) when TOPAMAX® was given as adjunctive therapy in patients taking valproic acid. However, norethindrone exposure was not significantly affected. In another pharmacokinetic interaction study in healthy volunteers with a concomitantly administered combination oral contraceptive product containing 1 mg norethindrone (NET) plus 35 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE), TOPAMAX®, given in the absence of other medications at doses of 50 to 200 mg/day, was not associated with statistically significant changes in mean exposure (AUC) to either component of the oral contraceptive. The possibility of decreased contraceptive efficacy and increased breakthrough bleeding should be considered in patients taking combination oral contraceptive products with TOPAMAX®. Patients taking estrogen-containing contraceptives should be asked to report any change in their bleeding patterns. Contraceptive efficacy can be decreased even in the absence of breakthrough bleeding [see Clinical Pharmacology].

Metformin

Topiramate treatment can frequently cause metabolic acidosis, a condition for which the use of metformin is contraindicated [see Clinical Pharmacology].

Lithium

In patients, lithium levels were unaffected during treatment with topiramate at doses of 200 mg/day; however, there was an observed increase in systemic exposure of lithium (27% for Cmax and 26% for AUC) following topiramate doses of up to 600 mg/day. Lithium levels should be monitored when co-administered with high-dose TOPAMAX® [see Clinical Pharmacology].

Other Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

Concomitant use of topiramate, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, with any other carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide, or dichlorphenamide) may increase the severity of metabolic acidosis and may also increase the risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore, if TOPAMAX® is given concomitantly with another carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, the patient should be monitored for the appearance or worsening of metabolic acidosis [see Clinical Pharmacology].

OVERDOSAGE

Overdoses of TOPAMAX® have been reported. Signs and symptoms included convulsions, drowsiness, speech disturbance, blurred vision, diplopia, mentation impaired, lethargy, abnormal coordination, stupor, hypotension, abdominal pain, agitation, dizziness and depression. The clinical consequences were not severe in most cases, but deaths have been reported after poly-drug overdoses involving TOPAMAX®.

Topiramate overdose has resulted in severe metabolic acidosis [see Warnings and Precautions].

A patient who ingested a dose between 96 and 110 g topiramate was admitted to a hospital with a coma lasting 20 to 24 hours followed by full recovery after 3 to 4 days.

In acute TOPAMAX® overdose, if the ingestion is recent, the stomach should be emptied immediately by lavage or by induction of emesis. Activated charcoal has been shown to adsorb topiramate in vitro. Treatment should be appropriately supportive. Hemodialysis is an effective means of removing topiramate from the body.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

None.

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Controlled Substance

TOPAMAX® (topiramate) is not a controlled substance.

Abuse

The abuse and dependence potential of TOPAMAX® has not been evaluated in human studies.

Dependence

TOPAMAX® has not been systematically studied in animals or humans for its potential for tolerance or physical dependence.

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