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Toprol-XL (Metoprolol Succinate) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc

 
 



DRUG INTERACTIONS

•Catecholamine-depleting drugs may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents.

(7.1)

•CYP2D6 Inhibitors are likely to increase metoprolol concentration.

(7.2)

•Concomitant use of glycosides, clonidine, and diltiazem and verapamil with beta-blockers can increase the risk of bradycardia.

(7.3)

•Beta-blockers including metoprolol, may exacerbate the rebound hypertension that can follow the withdrawal of clonidine.

(7.3)

 

Catecholamine depleting drugs (eg, reserpine, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Observe patients treated with TOPROL-XL plus a catecholamine depletor for evidence of hypotension or marked bradycardia, which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension.

 

Drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 such as quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and propafenone are likely to increase metoprolol concentration. In healthy subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype, coadministration of quinidine 100 mg and immediate-release metoprolol 200 mg tripled the concentration of S-metoprolol and doubled the metoprolol elimination half-life. In four patients with cardiovascular disease, coadministration of propafenone 150 mg t.i.d. with immediate-release metoprolol 50 mg t.i.d. resulted in two- to five-fold increases in the steady-state concentration of metoprolol. These increases in plasma concentration would decrease the cardioselectivity of metoprolol.

 

Digitalis glycosides, clonidine, diltiazem and verapamil slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use with beta blockers can increase the risk of bradycardia.

If clonidine and a beta blocker, such as metoprolol are coadministered, withdraw the beta-blocker several days before the gradual withdrawal of clonidine because beta-blockers may exacerbate the rebound hypertension that can follow the withdrawal of clonidine. If replacing clonidine by beta-blocker therapy, delay the introduction of beta-blockers for several days after clonidine administration has stopped [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) ].

 

OVERDOSAGE

Signs and Symptoms - Overdosage of TOPROL-XL may lead to severe bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiogenic shock. Clinical presentation can also include: atrioventricular block, heart failure, bronchospasm, hypoxia, impairment of consciousness/coma, nausea and vomiting.

Treatment – Consider treating the patient with intensive care. Patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure may be prone to significant hemodynamic instability. Seek consultation with a regional poison control center and a medical toxicologist as needed. Beta-blocker overdose may result in significant resistance to resuscitation with adrenergic agents, including beta-agonists. On the basis of the pharmacologic actions of metoprolol, employ the following measures.

There is very limited experience with the use of hemodialysis to remove metoprolol, however metoprolol is not highly protein bound.

Bradycardia: Administer intravenous atropine; repeat to effect. If the response is inadequate, consider intravenous isoproterenol or other positive chronotropic agents. Evaluate the need for transvenous pacemaker insertion.

Hypotension: Treat underlying bradycardia. Consider intravenous vasopressor infusion, such as dopamine or norepinephrine.

Bronchospasm: Administer a beta2-agonist, including albuterol inhalation, or an oral theophylline derivative.

Cardiac Failure: Administer diuretics or digoxin for congestive heart failure. For cardiogenic shock, consider IV dobutamine, isoproterenol, or glucagon.

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

TOPROL-XL is contraindicated in severe bradycardia, second or third degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, decompensated cardiac failure, sick sinus syndrome (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place), and in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.

 

REFERENCES

1. Devereaux PJ, Yang H, Yusuf S, Guyatt G, Leslie K, Villar JC et al. Effects of extended-release metoprolol succinate in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery (POISE trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008; 371:1839-47.

 

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