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Vagifem (Estradiol Vaginal) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Overdosage, etc



No drug- drug interaction studies have been conducted with Vagifem.

Metabolic Interactions

In-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that estrogens are metabolized partially by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Therefore, inducers or inhibitors of CYP3A4 may affect estrogen drug metabolism. Inducers of CYP3A4, such as St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) preparations, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and rifampin, may reduce plasma concentrations of estrogens, possibly resulting in a decrease in therapeutic effects and/or changes in the uterine bleeding profile. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir and grapefruit juice may increase plasma concentrations of estrogens and may result in side effects.


Overdosage of estrogen may cause nausea and vomiting, breast tenderness, dizziness, abdominal pain, drowsiness/fatigue and withdrawal bleeding in women. Treatment of overdose consists of discontinuation of Vagifem together with institution of appropriate symptomatic care.


Vagifem should not be used in women with any of the following conditions:

  • Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding
  • Known, suspected, or history of breast cancer
  • Known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia
  • Active deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or history of these conditions
  • Active arterial thromboembolic disease (for example, stroke, and myocardial infarction), or a history of these conditions
  • Known liver dysfunction or disease
  • Known or suspected pregnancy


  1. Rossouw JE, et al. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease by Age and Years Since Menopause. JAMA. 2007; 297:1465-1477.
  2. Hsia J, et al. Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Coronary Heart Disease. Arch Int Med. 2006; 166:357-365.
  3. Curb JD, et al. Venous Thrombosis and Conjugated Equine Estrogen in Women Without a Uterus. Arch Int Med. 2006; 166:772-780.
  4. Cushman M, et al. Estrogen Plus Progestin and Risk of Venous Thrombosis. JAMA. 2004; 292:1573-1580.
  5. Stefanick ML, et al. Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogens on Breast Cancer and Mammography Screening in Postmenopausal Women With Hysterectomy. JAMA. 2006; 295:1647-1657.
  6. Chlebowski RT, et al. Influence of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Breast Cancer and Mammography in Healthy Postmenopausal Women. JAMA. 2003; 289:3234-3253.
  7. Anderson GL, et al. Effects of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Gynecologic cancers and Associated Diagnostic Procedures. JAMA. 2003; 290:1739-1748.
  8. Shumaker SA, et al. Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Incidence of Probable Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Postmenopausal Women. JAMA. 2004; 291:2947-2958.
  9. Jackson RD, et al. Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogen on Risk of Fractures and BMD in Postmenopausal Women With Hysterectomy: Results From the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2006; 21:817-828.
  10. Hendrix SL, et al. Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogen on Stroke in the Women's Health Initiative. Circulation. 2006; 113:2425-2434.

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