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Comparison of Propofol/Alfentanil With Propofol/Ketamine

Information source: Rabin Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Lung Disease

Intervention: Propofol (Drug); Ketamine (Drug); Alfentanil (Drug)

Phase: N/A

Status: Not yet recruiting

Sponsored by: Rabin Medical Center

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Mordechai R Kramer, MD, Study Director, Affiliation: Rabin Medical Center

Overall contact:
Yair Manevich, MD, Email: yair.manevich@gmail.com


A prospective, randomized, patient-blinded comparison of the safety and efficacy of conscious sedation by propofol/alfentanil with propofol/ketamine in patients undergoing flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy.

Clinical Details

Official title: Safety and Efficacy of Sedation for Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy: Comparison of Propofol/Alfentanil With Propofol/Ketamine

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome:

Percutaneous carbon dioxide tension

oxygen saturation

heart rate

Non-invasive blood pressure

Secondary outcome:

Oxygen supplementation

Naso/oropharyngeal tube insertion

A questionnaire evaluating pain and discomfort

A questionnaire evaluating the quality of sedation

Total propofol dosage

Time to full awakening and orientation

Time to discharge

Detailed description: The study group will include 80 patients undergoing flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy(FFB). Patients will be randomly assigned prior to the procedure to receive sedation by either propofol/alfentanil (PA group) or propofol/ketamine (PK group), using either the sealed envelope method or by computer randomization. All patients will receive local anesthesia with Lidocaine 2% (total dose of 5-10 ml) that will be sprayed via the bronchoscope on the vocal cords before passage through them, as well as into the bronchial tree in order to suppress coughing. In addition, patients from both groups will optionally receive intravenous Midazolam (up to a total dose of 0. 05 mg/kg)if deemed necessary during the procedure. Sedation will be started by 10-15 mcg/kg Alfentanil and 0. 4 mg/kg Propofol, or by 0. 2-0. 3 mg/kg Ketamine and 0. 4 mg/kg Propofol. It will be maintained by additional boluses of Propofol (aliquots of 10-50 mg) or by additional boluses of Propofol (aliquots of 10-50 mg) and/or Ketamine (aliquots of 5-25 mg). All patients will receive supplemental oxygen via nasal cannula (2-4 L/min) before the beginning of the procedure. Patients whose functional oxygen saturation (SpO2) prior to the beginning of the procedure will be lower than 92% while connected to a nasal cannula, will receive oxygen supplementation via a face mask. If the SpO2 after initiation of sedation will fall below 90%, the patients' airways will be opened using a jaw-thrust maneuver or insertion of a nasal airway. Should the SpO2 remain low, the patient will receive oxygen supplementation via a face-mask. If deemed necessary, additional safety measures will be taken by the anesthesiologist or by the performer of the bronchoscopy, such as administration of oxygen directly through the bronchoscope, assisted ventilation with an Ambu bag, and tracheal intubation. The duration of bronchoscopy will be calculated from the administration of sedation until the flexible bronchoscope is removed from the tracheobronchial tree. In all cases, patients will be monitored using continuous electrocardiography, pulse oximetry, and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtCO2, using a digital sensor placed on the patient's earlobe),and automated noninvasive blood pressure recordings every 5 minutes. All parameters will be recorded beginning from prior to connecting the patient to the nasal cannula before initiation of sedation, throughout the entire procedure and until 10 minutes after removal of the bronchoscope from the nasopharynx. Immediately after the end of the procedure, the bronchoscopist will grade the quality of sedation (ease of performing the procedure) by Visual Analog Scale. A questionnaire evaluating pain and discomfort by Visual Analog Scale will be completed by the patient when fully awake after the procedure.(~30 minutes after the end of the procedure). Percutaneous carbon dioxide tension, blood oxygenation, heart rate, and blood pressure will be compared between the groups.


Minimum age: 18 Years. Maximum age: 80 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I or II

- patients that will be referred to the procedure for bronchoalveolar lavage and

cytologic/bacteriologic sampling, endoluminal biopsies for pathologic /bacteriologic analysis, or for regaining patency (mechanically or laser-assisted) of airways that are obstructed by secretions, tumors or foreign bodies Exclusion Criteria:

- patient refusal or inability to provide informed consent

- American Society of Anesthesiologists grade III or higher

- allergy to study medications

- patients who have an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy

Locations and Contacts

Yair Manevich, MD, Email: yair.manevich@gmail.com

Pulmonary Institute, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Petach Tikva 49100, Israel
Additional Information

Related publications:

Stolz D, Chhajed PN, Leuppi JD, Brutsche M, Pflimlin E, Tamm M. Cough suppression during flexible bronchoscopy using combined sedation with midazolam and hydrocodone: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Thorax. 2004 Sep;59(9):773-6.

British Thoracic Society Bronchoscopy Guidelines Committee, a Subcommittee of Standards of Care Committee of British Thoracic Society. British Thoracic Society guidelines on diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. Thorax. 2001 Mar;56 Suppl 1:i1-21.

Gonzalez R, De-La-Rosa-Ramirez I, Maldonado-Hernandez A, Dominguez-Cherit G. Should patients undergoing a bronchoscopy be sedated? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2003 Apr;47(4):411-5.

Fox BD, Krylov Y, Leon P, Ben-Zvi I, Peled N, Shitrit D, Kramer MR. Benzodiazepine and opioid sedation attenuate the sympathetic response to fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Prophylactic labetalol gave no additional benefit. Results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Respir Med. 2008 Jul;102(7):978-83. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2008.02.011. Epub 2008 Apr 3.

Putinati S, Ballerin L, Corbetta L, Trevisani L, Potena A. Patient satisfaction with conscious sedation for bronchoscopy. Chest. 1999 May;115(5):1437-40.

Stolz D, Kurer G, Meyer A, Chhajed PN, Pflimlin E, Strobel W, Tamm M. Propofol versus combined sedation in flexible bronchoscopy: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Eur Respir J. 2009 Nov;34(5):1024-30. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00180808. Epub 2009 Apr 22.

Clark G, Licker M, Younossian AB, Soccal PM, Frey JG, Rochat T, Diaper J, Bridevaux PO, Tschopp JM. Titrated sedation with propofol or midazolam for flexible bronchoscopy: a randomised trial. Eur Respir J. 2009 Dec;34(6):1277-83. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00142108. Epub 2009 May 14.

Crawford M, Pollock J, Anderson K, Glavin RJ, MacIntyre D, Vernon D. Comparison of midazolam with propofol for sedation in outpatient bronchoscopy. Br J Anaesth. 1993 Apr;70(4):419-22.

White PF, Way WL, Trevor AJ. Ketamine--its pharmacology and therapeutic uses. Anesthesiology. 1982 Feb;56(2):119-36.

Berkenbosch JW, Graff GR, Stark JM. Safety and efficacy of ketamine sedation for infant flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Chest. 2004 Mar;125(3):1132-7.

Slonim AD, Ognibene FP. Amnestic agents in pediatric bronchoscopy. Chest. 1999 Dec;116(6):1802-8.

Hwang J, Jeon Y, Park HP, Lim YJ, Oh YS. Comparison of alfetanil and ketamine in combination with propofol for patient-controlled sedation during fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005 Oct;49(9):1334-8.

Starting date: February 2014
Last updated: November 26, 2013

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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