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The Effects of Multiple Dose Fluoxetine and Metabolites on CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 Activity

Information source: University of Washington
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Drug-Drug Interaction; Healthy Volunteers

Intervention: Fluoxetine (Drug)

Phase: N/A

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: University of Washington

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Nina Isoherranen, PhD., Principal Investigator, Affiliation: University of Washington, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics
Connie Davis, MD., Principal Investigator, Affiliation: University of Washington, Department of Medicine


Inhibitory drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a considerable concern as inhibition of drug's clearance can lead to increased plasma concentrations and subsequent adverse events and toxicities. Fluoxetine (Prozac®) is a widely prescribed antidepressant, but is also a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Fluoxetine was chosen as the model inhibitor for this study because it is a clinically important inhibitor of multiple CYP enzymes with varying potencies for each isoform. From in vitro data, fluoxetine is predicted to be a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6, but a strong inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. However, in vivo fluoxetine causes a potent interaction with CYP2D6 and a weak-to-no interaction with CYP3A4. The magnitude of the in vivo interaction of fluoxetine with CYP2C19 is not known. This in vitro-to-in vivo discrepancy is of concern for two reasons: 1) In clinical drug development, in vivo drug-drug interactions are tested only when in vitro experiments predict a risk for in vivo DDIs and 2) Because in vivo DDI's are tested using a rank order approach of going from the most potent in vitro interaction to the least potent until no interaction in vivo is observed. In this study the interaction between fluoxetine and CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 will be quantified simultaneously and the quantitative in vitro-to-in vivo predictions tested. Fluoxetine will be orally administered daily for 14 days and CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 activity will be tested in the end of fluoxetine dosing using a cocktail of CYP probes including caffeine, midazolam, omeprazole and dextromethorphan. Lovastatin will be administered on a separate day and used as a second CYP3A4 probe to test whether CYP3A4 inhibition by fluoxetine depends on the contribution of intestinal CYP3A4 to the probe clearance. Plasma and urine samples will be collected for 12 and 24 hrs, respectively, during the control sessions (before fluoxetine administration) and for 24 hrs during the treatment sessions (fluoxetine multiple dose). The concentrations of each of the probe drugs and their metabolites (when applicable) as well as fluoxetine and its metabolites will be measured in the collected samples and pharmacokinetic analysis will be performed. The primary outcome measures for CYP inhibition will be the increase in the area under plasma concentrations time curve (AUC) of each of the probes. The null hypothesis of this study is that the area under plasma concentrations time curves (AUCs) of caffeine, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam or lovastatin are the same between the control session and the fluoxetine session. Because lovastatin has the greatest variability in its baseline pharmacokinetics the study was powered based on the specific null hypothesis for lovastatin. The alternative hypothesis is that fluoxetine decreases the clearance of the probe drugs resulting in a significant increase in the AUCs between the control and study sessions.

Clinical Details

Official title: The Effects of Multiple Dose Fluoxetine and Metabolites on CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 Activity

Study design: Endpoint Classification: Pharmacokinetics Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Basic Science

Primary outcome: Fluoxetine-CYP3A4 DDI

Secondary outcome: Fluoxetine-Cocktail DDI


Minimum age: 18 Years. Maximum age: 50 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- Subjects must be 18-50 years old.

- Subjects must be currently in good health with normal gastrointestinal and heart

function (as determined by medical history)

- Laboratory values indicating normal liver (Serum Albumin 3. 9 - 5. 0 g/dL, Total

Bilirubin < 1. 4mg/dL, Alanine Transaminase 9 - 60 IU/L and Aspartate Transaminase 10

- 40 IU/L) and kidney (Serum Creatinine < 1. 5 mg/dL and Blood Urea Nitrogen 7 - 20

mg/dL) function as well as normal blood glucose values (Fasting Blood Glucose < 100 mg/dL).

- Subjects must have no known allergies to fluoxetine or other selective serotonin

reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), benzodiazepine drugs, caffeine, omeprazole, dextromethorphan, lovastatin or any chemically related drug.

- Women of childbearing age must be willing to use measures to avoid conception during

the study period and willing to have a pregnancy test on Study Days 1 and 16.

- Subjects must agree not to take any known substrates, inhibitors, inducers or

activators ofcyrochrome P450 (CYP) CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 for two weeks before the start of each study through three weeks after the last day of study. This list includes but is not restricted to antidepressant and antipsychotic agents, azole antifungal agents, macrolide antibiotics, anti-epileptic medications, antihypertensive agents and cholesterol lowering agents. They must also be willing to avoid ingesting grapefruit, grapefruit juice or other grapefruit containing products, and any herbal-based nutrient supplement or medication for the same period of time. Use of oral contraceptives will be permitted.

- Subjects must be willing to avoid caffeine-containing foods, beverages, or dietary

supplements for 24 hrs prior to and throughout each study session and avoid alcohol for 48 hrs prior to and throughout each study session.

- Subjects must be willing to avoid heavy exercise during the study

Exclusion Criteria:

- Current cigarette smoker

- History of liver, kidney, gastrointestinal or heart disease

- Lab test results indicative of abnormal liver or kidney function, or diabetes (see

above inclusion criteria).

- Allergy to any monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or any other chemically related

drug or to benzodiazepine drug

- Prior experience of side effects to fluoxetine or other selective serotonin reuptake

inhibitors (SSRIs)

- CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 poor metabolizer genotype or CYP3A5 expressor genotype

- Recent ingestion (< 2 weeks) of any medication known to be metabolized by or alter

CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C19 or CYP2D6 activity

- A positive pregnancy test or breastfeeding

- History of diabetes, peptic ulcer or inflammatory bowel disease

- Overweight; a body mass index ≥ 30 or underweight; a body mass index of ≤ 18

- Use of chronic prescription or over-the-counter medications (except oral


- Use of antidepressants during the last two weeks preceding the study

Locations and Contacts

University of Washington, Institute of Translational Health Sciences, Clinical Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98195, United States
Additional Information

Starting date: September 2011
Last updated: June 18, 2012

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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