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Thrombolysis and Deferoxamine in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

Information source: Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 20, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Acute Ischemic Stroke

Intervention: Deferoxamine (Drug)

Phase: Phase 2

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Monica Millán Torné, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital


Iron overload has been associated with greater brain injury in ischemia/reperfusion experimental stroke models and ischemic stroke patients, especially in those treated with thrombolytic treatment. Deferoxamine administration, an iron chelator, offers a neuroprotective action in ischemia/reperfusion animal models. Primary objective: To evaluate the security and tolerability of deferoxamine endovenous treatment in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with iv. tPA. Secondary objectives: To study pharmacokinetics of deferoxamine given by endovenous bolus (10 mg/Kg) followed by 72-hour continuous intravenous infusion (20, 40 o 60 mg/Kg). To evaluate the deferoxamine effect in clinical outcome, infarct volume and hemorrhagic transformation and brain edema development. Methodology: Double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, dose-finding phase II clinical trial. Study stages: 1st: bolus+20 mg/Kg/day vs. Placebo (n=15: 5); 2nd: bolus+40 mg/Kg/day vs. Placebo (n=15: 5); 3rd: bolus+60 mg/Kg/day vs placebo (n=15: 5). These doses will be increased according to security results of the previous stage. Patients will be continuously monitored in stroke units. Laboratory parameters will be measured at baseline, 24h, 72h and 30 days to evaluate adverse events related to the drug. Serum deferoxamine and feroxamine concentrations will be measured along time after the injection in a subgroup of patients to the pharmacokinetics study. CT scan will be performed at 24-36h to assess hemorrhagic transformation and brain edema. The NIH Stroke Scale will be evaluated during hospitalization, and the Rankin score at discharge and 3 months. If deferoxamine demonstrate to be secure and well tolerated treatment in acute stroke patients, it may be a new therapy option to lower the brain injury after ischemia and reperfusion.

Clinical Details

Official title: Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Dose-finding Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Intravenous Deferoxamine in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Treated With Tissue Plasminogen Activator

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome: Clinical and Analytical Adverse Events (anemia, hypotension, renal failure, mortality, hemorrhagic transformation, cerebral edema, other severe adverse events)

Secondary outcome:

Neurological status (NIHSS, Barthel and Rankin scales), final ischemic lesion volume on CTscan.

Deferoxamine and ferritin levels in serum (pharmacokinetics).


Minimum age: 18 Years. Maximum age: 80 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- Age 18-80 years old

- Acute Ischemic Stroke on the middle cerebral artery territory

- Treatment with iv tPA in the first 3 hours from symptoms onset

Exclusion Criteria:

- Modified Rankin Scale more or equal to 2

- Infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic or hematologic disease

- Anemia (Hto<34% or Hb<10g/dl)

- Previous renal failure

- Previous treatment with oral iron supplement

- Minor stroke (NIHSS less than 4), lacunar or posterior territory

- Alcohol consumption (more than 40mg/Kg)

- Pregnancy

- Participation in other clinical trials

Locations and Contacts

Hospital Universitari Josep Trueta, Girona 17007, Spain

Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid 28006, Spain

Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona 08916, Spain

Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, La Coruña, Galicia 15706, Spain

Additional Information

Related publications:

Kontos HA. Oxygen radicals in cerebral ischemia: the 2001 Willis lecture. Stroke. 2001 Nov;32(11):2712-6.

Selim MH, Ratan RR. The role of iron neurotoxicity in ischemic stroke. Ageing Res Rev. 2004 Jul;3(3):345-53. Review.

Castellanos M, Puig N, Carbonell T, Castillo J, Martinez J, Rama R, Dávalos A. Iron intake increases infarct volume after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Brain Res. 2002 Oct 11;952(1):1-6.

Millan M, Sobrino T, Castellanos M, Nombela F, Arenillas JF, Riva E, Cristobo I, García MM, Vivancos J, Serena J, Moro MA, Castillo J, Dávalos A. Increased body iron stores are associated with poor outcome after thrombolytic treatment in acute stroke. Stroke. 2007 Jan;38(1):90-5. Epub 2006 Nov 30.

Dávalos A, Castillo J, Marrugat J, Fernandez-Real JM, Armengou A, Cacabelos P, Rama R. Body iron stores and early neurologic deterioration in acute cerebral infarction. Neurology. 2000 Apr 25;54(8):1568-74.

Dávalos A, Fernandez-Real JM, Ricart W, Soler S, Molins A, Planas E, Genís D. Iron-related damage in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 1994 Aug;25(8):1543-6. Erratum in: Stroke 1994 Nov;25(11):2300.

Erdemoglu AK, Ozbakir S. Serum ferritin levels and early prognosis of stroke. Eur J Neurol. 2002 Nov;9(6):633-7.

Soloniuk DS, Perkins E, Wilson JR. Use of allopurinol and deferoxamine in cellular protection during ischemia. Surg Neurol. 1992 Aug;38(2):110-3.

Patt A, Horesh IR, Berger EM, Harken AH, Repine JE. Iron depletion or chelation reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced edema in gerbil brains. J Pediatr Surg. 1990 Feb;25(2):224-7; discussion 227-8.

Palmer C, Roberts RL, Bero C. Deferoxamine posttreatment reduces ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats. Stroke. 1994 May;25(5):1039-45.

Hurn PD, Koehler RC, Blizzard KK, Traystman RJ. Deferoxamine reduces early metabolic failure associated with severe cerebral ischemic acidosis in dogs. Stroke. 1995 Apr;26(4):688-94; discussion 694-5.

Freret T, Valable S, Chazalviel L, Saulnier R, Mackenzie ET, Petit E, Bernaudin M, Boulouard M, Schumann-Bard P. Delayed administration of deferoxamine reduces brain damage and promotes functional recovery after transient focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Apr;23(7):1757-65.

Kim HJ, Hida H, Jung CG, Miura Y, Nishino H. Treatment with deferoxamine increases neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells. Brain Res. 2006 May 30;1092(1):1-15. Epub 2006 May 12.

Summers MR, Jacobs A, Tudway D, Perera P, Ricketts C. Studies in desferrioxamine and ferrioxamine metabolism in normal and iron-loaded subjects. Br J Haematol. 1979 Aug;42(4):547-55.

Allain P, Mauras Y, Chaleil D, Simon P, Ang KS, Cam G, Le Mignon L, Simon M. Pharmacokinetics and renal elimination of desferrioxamine and ferrioxamine in healthy subjects and patients with haemochromatosis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1987 Aug;24(2):207-12.

Starting date: September 2008
Last updated: July 4, 2012

Page last updated: August 20, 2015

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