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Intranasal Bevacizumab for HHT-Related Epistaxis

Information source: Stanford University
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 20, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: HHT; Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia; Epistaxis; Nose Bleeds; Nasal Bleeding

Intervention: Bevacizumab (Drug)

Phase: Phase 4

Status: Recruiting

Sponsored by: Stanford University

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Peter H Hwang, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Stanford University, Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery

Overall contact:
Amelia K Clark, MD, Email: aclark@ohns.stanford.edu


This is a randomized, controlled, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intranasal Avastin (bevacizumab) injection versus saline control for control of HHT-related epistaxis when used in conjunction with bipolar electrocautery.

Clinical Details

Official title: Intranasal Bevacizumab for HHT-Related Epistaxis

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome: Improvement in Epistaxis Severity Score

Secondary outcome:

Improvement in Quality of Life

Reduction in epistaxis-related costs (direct and indirect)

Detailed description: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by systemic vascular malformations that result from mutations of the ENG gene, which encodes for factors in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. HHT is diagnosed by the Curacao Criteria including the presence of epistaxis; telangiectasias or vascular malformations in the lungs, liver, or nervous system; and a positive family history involving a first-degree relative. One of the most common presentations of this disease is recurrent and profound epistaxis, with many patients reporting more than 4 epistaxis episodes in a day, many lasting up to an hour. HHT-related epistaxis often results in severe anemia requiring intravenous iron and repeated blood transfusions, and also carries significant psychosocial disability relating to impaired quality of life and work absenteeism. Multiple approaches to treatment have been described, including electrocautery, laser treatment, embolization, septodermoplasty, and as a last resort, Young's procedure, involving closure of the nasal vestibule. These approaches are largely palliative, with variable effectiveness, and almost always require repeated procedures for chronic management of bleeding. There is a great need for the development of new treatment options for reducing the medical morbidity and quality of life impairment associated with refractory epistaxis in HHT. Recently there has been promising data suggesting that inhibition of angiogenesis may be an effective strategy for managing HHT-related bleeding. Circulating concentrations of VEGF are significantly elevated in HHT, making VEGF an attractive therapeutic target. Preliminary studies suggest that bevacizumab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody that inhibits the biologic activity of VEGF, can significantly improve epistaxis severity when topically applied, locally injected, or intravenously administered. However, these early pilot studies of bevacizumab have been limited exclusively to retrospective case series. As yet, there has been no prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial with serial follow up time points to establish the role of bevacizumab in the treatment of HHT-related epistaxis. Based on existing level 4 evidence that suggests that bevacizumab injection is beneficial in the management of HHT-related epistaxis, we hypothesize that patients who receive intranasal injection with bevacizumab at the time of electrocautery treatment will have an improvement in the frequency and severity of epistaxis compared to patients who receive injection of saline control.


Minimum age: 18 Years. Maximum age: N/A. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria: 1. The patient carries a diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) 2. The patient is to undergo treatment with electrocautery in the operating room under endoscopic visualization 3. The patient is able to give informed consent 4. The patient is at least 18 years old Exclusion Criteria: 1. The patient has had prior treatment with systemic or nasal bevacizumab within the past year 2. The patient has undergone electrocautery for epistaxis within the 6 months prior to study enrollment 3. The patient is a minor 4. The patient is pregnant 5. The patient is incapable of understanding the consent process 6. The patient has a history of HIV or another known cause of immunosuppression, or is actively taking immunosuppressive medications due to organ transplantation, rheumatoid disease, or other medical conditions.

Locations and Contacts

Amelia K Clark, MD, Email: aclark@ohns.stanford.edu

Stanford University Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford, California 94305, United States; Recruiting
Additional Information

Related publications:

Shovlin CL, Guttmacher AE, Buscarini E, Faughnan ME, Hyland RH, Westermann CJ, Kjeldsen AD, Plauchu H. Diagnostic criteria for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome). Am J Med Genet. 2000 Mar 6;91(1):66-7.

Lund VJ, Howard DJ. A treatment algorithm for the management of epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Am J Rhinol. 1999 Jul-Aug;13(4):319-22.

Sadick H, Riedel F, Naim R, Goessler U, Hörmann K, Hafner M, Lux A. Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia have increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta1 as well as high ALK1 tissue expression. Haematologica. 2005 Jun;90(6):818-28.

Simonds J, Miller F, Mandel J, Davidson TM. The effect of bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment on epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Laryngoscope. 2009 May;119(5):988-92. doi: 10.1002/lary.20159.

Karnezis TT, Davidson TM. Efficacy of intranasal Bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-associated epistaxis. Laryngoscope. 2011 Mar;121(3):636-8. doi: 10.1002/lary.21415. Epub 2010 Dec 16.

Rohrmeier C, Sachs HG, Kuehnel TS. A retrospective analysis of low dose, intranasal injected bevacizumab (Avastin) in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012 Feb;269(2):531-6. doi: 10.1007/s00405-011-1721-9. Epub 2011 Jul 31.

Chen S 4th, Karnezis T, Davidson TM. Safety of intranasal Bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-associated epistaxis. Laryngoscope. 2011 Mar;121(3):644-6. doi: 10.1002/lary.21345. Epub 2010 Nov 11.

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Karnezis TT, Davidson TM. Treatment of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with submucosal and topical bevacizumab therapy. Laryngoscope. 2012 Mar;122(3):495-7. doi: 10.1002/lary.22501. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

Hoag JB, Terry P, Mitchell S, Reh D, Merlo CA. An epistaxis severity score for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Laryngoscope. 2010 Apr;120(4):838-43. doi: 10.1002/lary.20818.

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Ingrand I, Ingrand P, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Defossez G, Jouhet V, Migeot V, Dufour X, Klossek JM. Altered quality of life in Rendu-Osler-Weber disease related to recurrent epistaxis. Rhinology. 2011 Jun;49(2):155-62. doi: 10.4193/Rhino09.138.

Steinbrook R. The price of sight--ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and the treatment of macular degeneration. N Engl J Med. 2006 Oct 5;355(14):1409-12.

Smith KA, Rudmik L. Cost collection and analysis for health economic evaluation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Aug;149(2):192-9. doi: 10.1177/0194599813487850. Epub 2013 May 2. Review.

Koopmanschap MA. PRODISQ: a modular questionnaire on productivity and disease for economic evaluation studies. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2005 Feb;5(1):23-8. doi: 10.1586/14737167.5.1.23.

Brazier J, Roberts J, Deverill M. The estimation of a preference-based measure of health from the SF-36. J Health Econ. 2002 Mar;21(2):271-92.

Brazier JE, Roberts J. The estimation of a preference-based measure of health from the SF-12. Med Care. 2004 Sep;42(9):851-9.

Starting date: August 2014
Last updated: March 18, 2015

Page last updated: August 20, 2015

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