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Perioperative Aminophylline to Improve Early Kidney Function After a Kidney Transplant

Information source: Stanford University
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Function of Renal Transplant

Intervention: Aminophylline (Drug); Theophylline drug levels (Other); Placebo (Drug)

Phase: N/A

Status: Recruiting

Sponsored by: Stanford University

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Paul C Grimm, MD, Study Director, Affiliation: Medical director, Pediatric Kidney Transplant Program Department of Pediatric Nephrology , Lucile Packard Children's hospital


The aim of this study is to evaluate whether peri-transplant administration of a drug named aminophylline to children undergoing a kidney transplant from deceased donors improves early graft function and also projects on long term graft function.

Clinical Details

Official title: Perioperative Aminophylline to Improve High Risk Renal Graft Outcome- a Double Blinded, Placebo Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome: Calculated estimated Glomerular Filtration rate (eGFR)

Secondary outcome: Urinary NGAL (Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) levels

Detailed description: This is a Double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial to evaluate whether administration of aminophylline starting pretransplant until post-transplant day 5 improves early kidney function and projects also on long term graft function. Study Arms and intervention: On admit to the hospital prior to transplant, patients will be randomized into treatment or control arms. The randomization will be based on age groups 1-5y, 5-12y and 12-18y Treatment arm: Patients will receive aminophylline loading dose 5mg/kg prior to transplant and will continue to receive aminophylline 1. 8mg/kg Q6h for a total of 20 doses. Control arm: Patients will receive placebo infusion of normal saline, pre-transplant, followed by normal saline infusions matched by volume and frequency to treatment arm for a total of 20doses. The only difference between the two arms will be the study intervention. Other than that all patients will receive the same standard of care for patients undergoing a kidney transplant. Theophylline drug levels will be monitored every morning from all patients for the first 4 days post- transplant. Theophylline levels will be reported independently by the laboratory in a faxed research report directly to the pharmacist who will perform dose adjustments, according to the following table. Theophylline Level (mcg/ml) Dose Adjustment <2 Increase subsequent doses by 50% 2-2. 9 Increase subsequent doses by 33% 3-3. 9 Increase subsequent doses by 25% 4-4. 9 Increase subsequent doses by 15% 5-7 (goal) Target Level; No dose adjustment 7. 1-8. 4 Decrease subsequent doses by 10% 8. 5-9. 9 Decrease subsequent doses by 15% 10-12. 4 Decrease subsequent doses by 25% 12. 5-14. 9 Decrease subsequent doses by 50% 15-19. 9 Decrease subsequent doses by 67% >19. 9 Discontinue all aminophylline doses. Contact Medical Monitor All involved personnel will be blinded to the patient's allocation and to the drug level results. The investigators will also collect a urine sample for NGAL (Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin)levels from all patients at 12 hours post-transplant. Primary outcome will be calculated Glomerular Filtration Rate(GFR) on postoperative day 5. The investigators will determine whether patients in the aminophylline group had improved GFR compared to control group. The investigators will also determine whether patients who received aminophylline had lower urinary NGAL levels compared to control group indicating a lesser degree of kidney injury. Urinary NGAL (Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) is a biomarker of kidney injury. Elevated urinary NGAL levels post-transplant were found to be predictive of delayed graft function and the need for dialysis post-transplant. At the investigators' center all patients undergo routine kidney protocol biopsies at 6 months post- transplant. After the slides are read by the pathologist the investigators will use the same tissue blocks to quantify the amount of fibrosis using computerized image analysis of Sirius Red-stained biopsies. The amount of fibrosis seen on 6 months protocol biopsies was proven to be correlated with expected graft survival. An independent medical monitor will be assigned to manage toxic theophylline levels >20mcg/mL. The laboratory will report directly to the medical monitor, who will discontinue aminophylline and remove the patient from the study. The trial will be also be monitored with a Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) unrelated to the study. The DSMB will meet after enrollment of 20 patients to assess for drug safety and monitor for adverse events of the drug.


Minimum age: 1 Year. Maximum age: 21 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria: 1. Pediatric kidney transplant recipients less than 21 years of age 2. Patients undergoing deceased donor (DD) kidney transplants Exclusion Criteria: 1. Known history of non-sinus tachycardia 2. Multiple organ transplants recipients 3. Severe liver dysfunction

Locations and Contacts

Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford, Stanford, California 94305-5208, United States; Recruiting
Vivian Shih, MD, Phone: 650-723-7903, Email: wvshih@stanford.edu
Paul C Grimm, MD, Phone: 6507237903, Email: pgrimm@stanford.edu
Vivian Shih, MD, Principal Investigator
Paul Grimm, MD, Sub-Investigator
Additional Information

Related publications:

Grenz A, Baier D, Petroktistis F, Wehrmann M, Köhle C, Schenk M, Sessler M, Gleiter CH, Fandrich F, Osswald H. Theophylline improves early allograft function in rat kidney transplantation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 May;317(2):473-9. Epub 2006 Jan 12.

Bhat MA, Shah ZA, Makhdoomi MS, Mufti MH. Theophylline for renal function in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr. 2006 Aug;149(2):180-4.

Jenik AG, Ceriani Cernadas JM, Gorenstein A, Ramirez JA, Vain N, Armadans M, Ferraris JR. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of prophylactic theophylline on renal function in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Pediatrics. 2000 Apr;105(4):E45.

McLaughlin GE, Abitbol CL. Reversal of oliguric tacrolimus nephrotoxicity in children. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005 Jul;20(7):1471-5. Epub 2005 Apr 19.

Starting date: November 2012
Last updated: June 30, 2014

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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