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GIP, GLP-1 and GLP-2 in Type 2 Diabetic Hyperglucagonemia

Information source: Herlev Hospital
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Intervention: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) (Biological)

Phase: N/A

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: Herlev Hospital

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Tina Vilsbøll, MD DMSc, Study Chair, Affiliation: Herlev Hospital
Filip K Knop, MD PhD, Study Director, Affiliation: Gentofte Hospital


In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying the hyperglucagonemia characterizing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) we wish to test the following hypothesis: Do pancreatic alpha-cells exhibit inappropriate glucagon responses to substances released from the small intestine (GIP, GLP-2 and GLP-2) in patients with T2DM?

Clinical Details

Official title: The Role of GIP, GLP-1 and GLP-2 in Type 2 Diabetic Hyperglucagonemia

Study design: Observational Model: Case-Only, Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional

Primary outcome: Plasma glucagon responses

Detailed description: Patients with T2DM are not able to suppress their secretion of glucagon after a meal or after oral ingestion of glucose. Patients actually respond with pathological high plasmaglucagon concentrations to these stimuli. Previous studies have shown that postprandial hyperglucagonemia results in increased hepatic glucose production and therefore contributes significantly to the hyperglycemia characterizing these patients. Recently we have shown that patients with T2DM exhibit a normal suppression of glucagon secretion following an adjustable intravenous (iv) glucose challenge mimicking the glucose excursion following a 50-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with the latter resulting in lack of glucagon suppression. Why this difference? A possible explanation could be that the oral administration stimulates intestinal factors resulting in a differentially glucagon response to the two similar glucose excursions. We wish to establish whether GIP, GLP-1 and/or GLP-2 are responsible for the inappropriate glucagon suppression following OGTT and meals in patients with T2DM.


Minimum age: 35 Years. Maximum age: N/A. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- Caucasians with diet and/or tablet treated T2DM of at least 3 months duration

(diagnosed according to the criterias of the World Health Organization (WHO))

- Normal Hemoglobin

- Prior Informed Consent

Exclusion Criteria:

- Liver disease (ALAT/ASAT > 2 x upper normal value)

- Diabetic nephropathy (se-creatinin > 130 um and/or albuminuria

- Treatment with drugs that cannot be discontinued for 12 hours

Locations and Contacts

Department of Endocrinology J, Herlev Hospital, Herlev 2730, Denmark
Additional Information

Related publications:

Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2003 Jan;26 Suppl 1:S5-20.

Unger RH, Orci L. Glucagon and the A cell: physiology and pathophysiology (first two parts). N Engl J Med. 1981 Jun 18;304(25):1518-24.

Unger RH, Orci L. Glucagon and the A cell: physiology and pathophysiology (second of two parts). N Engl J Med. 1981 Jun 25;304(26):1575-80.

Shah P, Vella A, Basu A, Basu R, Schwenk WF, Rizza RA. Lack of suppression of glucagon contributes to postprandial hyperglycemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov;85(11):4053-9.

Knop FK, Vilsbøll T, Madsbad S, Holst JJ, Krarup T. Inappropriate suppression of glucagon during OGTT but not during isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion contributes to the reduced incretin effect in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2007 Apr;50(4):797-805. Epub 2007 Jan 16.

Nauck MA, Homberger E, Siegel EG, Allen RC, Eaton RP, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Incretin effects of increasing glucose loads in man calculated from venous insulin and C-peptide responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Aug;63(2):492-8.

Knop FK, Vilsbøll T, Højberg PV, Larsen S, Madsbad S, Vølund A, Holst JJ, Krarup T. Reduced incretin effect in type 2 diabetes: cause or consequence of the diabetic state? Diabetes. 2007 Aug;56(8):1951-9. Epub 2007 May 18.

Nauck MA, Kleine N, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Willms B, Creutzfeldt W. Normalization of fasting hyperglycaemia by exogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36 amide) in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 1993 Aug;36(8):741-4.

Holst JJ. On the physiology of GIP and GLP-1. Horm Metab Res. 2004 Nov-Dec;36(11-12):747-54. Review.

Meier JJ, Gallwitz B, Siepmann N, Holst JJ, Deacon CF, Schmidt WE, Nauck MA. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) dose-dependently stimulates glucagon secretion in healthy human subjects at euglycaemia. Diabetologia. 2003 Jun;46(6):798-801. Epub 2003 May 23.

Nauck MA, Heimesaat MM, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7-36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 1993 Jan;91(1):301-7.

Vilsbøll T, Krarup T, Madsbad S, Holst JJ. Defective amplification of the late phase insulin response to glucose by GIP in obese Type II diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2002 Aug;45(8):1111-9. Epub 2002 Jul 4.

Meier JJ, Nauck MA, Pott A, Heinze K, Goetze O, Bulut K, Schmidt WE, Gallwitz B, Holst JJ. Glucagon-like peptide 2 stimulates glucagon secretion, enhances lipid absorption, and inhibits gastric acid secretion in humans. Gastroenterology. 2006 Jan;130(1):44-54.

Schmidt WE, Siegel EG, Creutzfeldt W. Glucagon-like peptide-1 but not glucagon-like peptide-2 stimulates insulin release from isolated rat pancreatic islets. Diabetologia. 1985 Sep;28(9):704-7.

Sørensen LB, Flint A, Raben A, Hartmann B, Holst JJ, Astrup A. No effect of physiological concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 on appetite and energy intake in normal weight subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Apr;27(4):450-6.

Starting date: July 2008
Last updated: November 27, 2013

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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