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Jet Injection of 1% Buffered Lidocaine Versus Topical EMLA for Local Anesthesia Before Lumbar Puncture in Children

Information source: University of Colorado, Denver
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Lumbar Puncture; Topical Analgesia

Intervention: J-Tip (Device); EMLA (Drug); Lidocaine (Drug)

Phase: N/A

Status: Enrolling by invitation

Sponsored by: University of Colorado, Denver

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Ryan Caltagirone, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Children's Hospital Colorado and University of Colorado Denver
Kathleen Adelgais, MD, MPH, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: Children's Hospital Colorado and University of Colorado Denver


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a needle-free jet-injection system with 1% buffered lidocaine for local anesthesia for lumbar punctures compared to a topical anesthetic agent. Our hypothesis is: A needle-free jet-injection system (J-Tip) with 1% lidocaine will provide local anesthesia that is comparable to that of a topical anesthetic agent (EMLA cream) when performing lumbar punctures in children.

Clinical Details

Official title: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial of Jet Injection of 1% Buffered Lidocaine Versus Topical EMLA for Local Anesthesia Before Lumbar Puncture in Children

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome:

Pain Score

Pain Score

Pain Score

Secondary outcome:

Lumbar Puncture Success

Change in Heart Rate

Detailed description: Lumbar punctures are a common procedure performed in children in the emergency department. In febrile infants they are frequently performed as part of a sepsis evaluation, and in older children they are used in the evaluation of possible meningitis, new seizures, altered mental status and other neurologic emergencies. Several studies in the pediatric emergency medicine literature have found a positive association between lumbar puncture success and the use of local anesthesia in infant lumbar punctures. Despite this data, studies have shown that 70-76% of lumbar punctures in the emergency department are performed without any form of pain management, with up to 95% of infants receiving no form of pain management. Common reasoning for providers to forgo pain management include the time for topical anesthetics to be effective (30-45 minutes), the pain already associated with injectable lidocaine, and obscuring of anatomic landmarks with injectable lidocaine. A recent development in pain management for pediatric procedures is the use of needle-free jet injection of lidocaine. One such device is the J-Tip, which uses a compressed carbon dioxide (CO2) cartridge to deliver medication to the subcutaneous tissues to a depth of 5-8 mm in 0. 2 seconds. It has been shown to be largely pain-free for children. Multiple studies have shown it to be effective in reducing pain associated with peripheral IV placement in children. The J-Tip has recently been approved for peripheral IV starts in the Children's Hospital Colorado emergency department. Some hospitals anecdotally report using the device for lumbar punctures, but to date no randomized studies have evaluated its effectiveness in pain management compared to other methods. Our study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the J-Tip in lumbar punctures. It offers the advantage of providing much faster anesthesia compared to topical creams, yet does not require the initial skin puncture of injectable lidocaine. If a rapid form of local anesthesia is available, it may increase the overall use of local anesthesia and improve pain management in the pediatric population.


Minimum age: N/A. Maximum age: 18 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- age ≤4 months or 4-18 years

- ability to report VAS for patients 4-18 years

- require lumbar puncture as part of their clinical care

Exclusion Criteria:

- ages 5-47 months

- developmental delay or inability to complete VAS in older patients

- allergy to lidocaine

- requirement of sedation for procedure

- pre-procedural analgesia treatment except for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

and acetaminophen.

Locations and Contacts

Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045, United States
Additional Information

Related publications:

Fein D, Avner JR, Khine H. Pattern of pain management during lumbar puncture in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010 May;26(5):357-60. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e3181db2026.

Baxter AL, Welch JC, Burke BL, Isaacman DJ. Pain, position, and stylet styles: infant lumbar puncture practices of pediatric emergency attending physicians. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004 Dec;20(12):816-20.

Spanos S, Booth R, Koenig H, Sikes K, Gracely E, Kim IK. Jet Injection of 1% buffered lidocaine versus topical ELA-Max for anesthesia before peripheral intravenous catheterization in children: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008 Aug;24(8):511-5. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31816a8d5b.

Quinn M, Carraccio C, Sacchetti A. Pain, punctures, and pediatricians. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1993 Feb;9(1):12-4.

Tomlinson D, von Baeyer CL, Stinson JN, Sung L. A systematic review of faces scales for the self-report of pain intensity in children. Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):e1168-98. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-1609. Epub 2010 Oct 4. Review.

Baxter AL, Fisher RG, Burke BL, Goldblatt SS, Isaacman DJ, Lawson ML. Local anesthetic and stylet styles: factors associated with resident lumbar puncture success. Pediatrics. 2006 Mar;117(3):876-81. Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2006 May;117(5):1870.

Powell CV, Kelly AM, Williams A. Determining the minimum clinically significant difference in visual analog pain score for children. Ann Emerg Med. 2001 Jan;37(1):28-31.

Nigrovic LE, Kuppermann N, Neuman MI. Risk factors for traumatic or unsuccessful lumbar punctures in children. Ann Emerg Med. 2007 Jun;49(6):762-71. Epub 2007 Feb 23.

Jimenez N, Bradford H, Seidel KD, Sousa M, Lynn AM. A comparison of a needle-free injection system for local anesthesia versus EMLA for intravenous catheter insertion in the pediatric patient. Anesth Analg. 2006 Feb;102(2):411-4.

Kaur G, Gupta P, Kumar A. A randomized trial of eutectic mixture of local anesthetics during lumbar puncture in newborns. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003 Nov;157(11):1065-70.

Rushforth JA, Levene MI. Behavioural response to pain in healthy neonates. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1994 May;70(3):F174-6.

Grunau RV, Craig KD. Pain expression in neonates: facial action and cry. Pain. 1987 Mar;28(3):395-410.

Starting date: September 2012
Last updated: May 26, 2015

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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