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Intramuscular (IM) Olanzapine Versus IM Haloperidol Plus Lorazepam for Acute Agitation in Schizophrenia

Information source: National Taiwan University Hospital
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 23, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Schizophrenia; Schizoaffective Disorder; Agitation

Intervention: IM olanzapine (Drug); IM haloperidol plus lorazepam (Drug)

Phase: Phase 3

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: National Taiwan University Hospital

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Tzung-Jeng Hwang, MD, MPH, PhD, Study Director, Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital


The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intramuscular 10 mg olanzapine versus intramuscular 5 mg haloperidol plus lorazepam 2 mg in the treatment of acute agitated schizophrenic patients of Taiwanese populations.

Clinical Details

Official title: An Open-label, Randomized Trial of Intramuscular (IM) Olanzapine Versus Intramuscular Combination of Haloperidol and Lorazepam in the Treatment of Acute Agitation in Schizophrenia

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome: The Change of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC) Score From Baseline to 120 Minutes After First Injection

Secondary outcome: Change of the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) Score From Baseline to 120 Minutes After 1st Injection

Detailed description: To date, there have been no published reports of clinical studies of IM olanzapine versus IM haloperidol plus lorazepam in acute schizophrenia patients with moderate to severe degree of agitation. The latter combination of treatment is used quite often as a traditional way to treat agitated schizophrenia patients. Study Design: This is a randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study, consisting of screening and treatment phase. Patients completing the screening phase would be randomized to receive either 10mg olanzapine IM or 5 mg haloperidol plus 2 mg lorazepam IM . The ratio of randomization was 1: 1. Treatment assignments are based on a computer-generated randomization code supplied by central unit with block designs. Patients can receive a maximum of 3 injections within the first 24-hour period. Second and third injections are used under the clinical judgment of investigators. The second injection is allowed after 2-hour has elapsed since first injection. The third injection is allowed after 4-hour have passed since the second injection. Prohibited medications include antiarrythmics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antiemetics, and other psychotropic drugs. Efficacy Assessments: Patients are assessed by the study investigators at the screening visit and at 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes after first injection. The primary efficacy measure is PANSS-EC, which includes the items tension, uncooperativeness, hostility, poor impulse control, excitement and is derived from the PANSS by its originators using a principal-components factor analysis. Agitation is further assessed by the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) (Copyright 1998, Eli Lilly and Company; all rights reserved). Clinical Global Impression-Severity(CGI-S)scale37 is used to assess general psychiatric condition. For each patient, the same rater conducted the assessment throughout the study. Safety assessments: During the 24-hour treatment period, safety is assessed by clinical examination and laboratory investigations, recording spontaneously reported adverse events, completing the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) and Barnes Akathisia Scales (BAS). Statistical Procedures: The efficacy analyses were based on intent to treat (ITT) population defined as consisting of all randomized subjects. The last observation carried forward (LOCF) dataset was used to estimate the missing data. Data were analysed using statistical program R Language version 2. 8.0 (http://www. r-project. org/), with significance set at p < .05. Demographic characteristics and clinical parameters at baseline were compared by treatment group using the t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. The primary treatment comparison was 2-hour PANSS-EC scores after first injection. Continuous efficacy and safety data were evaluated by multiple linear regression, adjusting for treatment group, center, and treatment-by-center interaction. The treatment-by-center interaction was tested at the 0. 10 significant levels and dropped from the model if it was not statistically significant. To compare the number difference in adverse events between two treatment groups, Fisher's exact test was used due to low cell counts.


Minimum age: 18 Years. Maximum age: 65 Years. Gender(s): Both.


Inclusion Criteria:

- Men and non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged 18 to 65 years with a primary

diagnosis of schizophrenia (DSM-IV)

- were hospitalized due to an acute relapse

- were clinically agitated with a minimum total score of ≧ 14 on the five items of the

PANSS-EC and at least one individual item score of ≧ 4 using the 1-7 scoring system prior to first IM injection of study drug. Exclusion Criteria:

- female subjects who were either pregnant or breast-feeding;

- patients with acute, serious or unstable medical conditions;

- treatment with benzodiazepines within 4 hours prior to the first IM study drug


- treatment with an injection depot neuroleptic within 1 injection interval prior to

study drug administration;

- history of allergic reaction or intolerance to study medication(s);

- had a known diagnosis of dementia of any type, as defined in the DSM-IV.

Locations and Contacts

Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan
Additional Information

Related publications:

Breier A, Meehan K, Birkett M, David S, Ferchland I, Sutton V, Taylor CC, Palmer R, Dossenbach M, Kiesler G, Brook S, Wright P. A double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-response comparison of intramuscular olanzapine and haloperidol in the treatment of acute agitation in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 May;59(5):441-8.

Starting date: July 2006
Last updated: September 11, 2014

Page last updated: August 23, 2015

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