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ITT4 Intratesticular Hormonal Milieu in Man (ITT4)

Information source: University of Washington
ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 20, 2015
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.

Condition(s) targeted: Healthy Males

Intervention: Acyline (Drug); Testosterone gel (Drug); ketoconazole 400 (Drug); Ketoconazole 800 (Drug); Dutasteride (Drug); Anastrozole (Drug); Placebo ketoconazole (Drug)

Phase: Phase 1/Phase 2

Status: Completed

Sponsored by: University of Washington

Official(s) and/or principal investigator(s):
Mara Y Roth, MD, Principal Investigator, Affiliation: University of Washington


The purpose of this research study is to determine how much male hormone, testosterone, is necessary to maintain sperm production in the testis. This knowledge will be used to help in the development of a safe male hormonal contraception. Specific Aims: 1. to determine if ketoconazole plus acyline will suppress intratesticular testosterone(ITT) to a greater degree than acyline alone. 2. to determine if dutasteride plus acyline will suppress intratesticular dihydrotestosterone (IT-DHT) to a greater degree than acyline alone. 3. to determine if anastrazole plus acyline will suppress intratesticular estradiol(IT-E2) to a greater degree than acyline alone.

Clinical Details

Official title: Mechanisms of Control of the Intratesticular Hormonal Milieu in Man

Study design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Single Blind (Subject), Primary Purpose: Treatment

Primary outcome:

Intratesticular Testosterone (IT-T) Level

Intratesticular Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) Level

Intratesticular Androstenedione (ADD) Level

Detailed description: Five drugs will be used in this study: acyline, testosterone gel, ketoconazole, dutasteride, and anastrazole. Acyline suppresses luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which are hormones made by the pituitary gland in the brain, thus blocking the signal from the brain that causes the testes to make testosterone. Therefore, acyline blocks testosterone production. Men may experience some side effects from the low levels of testosterone caused by acyline. Acyline is an experimental drug. Over 125 men have received acyline from our lab. Acyline will be given by injection, and injections are formulated by subject's weight and may be given in multiple injections. Testosterone gel is given to replace testosterone level back to the normal range. Testosterone gel is approved for use in men with low testosterone levels. Ketoconazole suppresses testosterone production as well. Ketoconazole works in the adrenal glands to prevent testosterone production. It is approved by the U. S. FDA for treatment of fungal infections but for this study the use is considered investigational. Dutasteride blocks metabolism of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It is approved by the FDA for treatment of benign enlargement of the prostate gland, but the use is considered investigational in this study. Also, the dose is 5 times higher than the FDA approved dose. Anastrazole blocks metabolism of testosterone into estradiol. It is approved by the FDA for treatment of breast cancer but its use is considered investigational in this study. Participation will last approximately 2 months. The study involves a minimum of 7 visits. Clinic visits at Screening, Day 3 and Day 10 will take about 1-1. 5 hours each. On Day 3 & 10 a fine needle aspiration of one testis will be performed. The Day 1 visit will take approximately 45 minutes. The Day 7 visit will take about 15 minutes. The Day 17 and Day 40 visits will take approximately 30 minutes each. Over the course of the study, which includes 7 separate blood draws, approximately 12 ounces (one and a half cups) of blood will be drawn. The acyline will be given by injection. The testosterone or placebo gel is applied to the skin on the chest, upper arms, and upper back. The ketoconazole, dutasteride, anastrazole, or placebo medication will be taken by mouth. Subjects randomly assigned to Group 3 will have a Cosyntropin Stimulation Test performed at the day 10 visit to evaluate the function of adrenal glands. This is NOT a trial of a male contraceptive, and the study medications will not prevent pregnancy. Subjects must use an acceptable form of birth control.


Minimum age: 18 Years. Maximum age: 50 Years. Gender(s): Male.



- Males age 18-50

- Normal serum testosterone, LH and FSH

- prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 4. 0

- Agrees not to donate blood or participate in another research study during the study

- Informed consent

- Able to understand and comply with protocol requirements, instructions and

protocol-stated restrictions

- In general good health based on normal screening evaluation (consisting of a medical

history, physical exam, normal serum chemistry and hematology)

- Must be willing to use a reliable form of contraception during the study


- Poor general health, with clinically significant abnormal blood results

- Participation in a long-term male contraceptive study within the past three months

- Participation in long-term contraceptive or drug study within the past 3 months

- History of or current liver disease

- Current use of terfenadine, astemizole, cisapride, budesonide, felodipine,

fluticasone, lovastatin, midazolam, sildenafil, or vardenafil

- History of testicular, prostate, or scrotal surgery/trauma or genital abnormal exam

- BMI > 32

- History of sleep apnea and/or major psychiatric problems

- Chronic pain syndrome

- History of testosterone or anabolic steroid abuse currently or in the past

- Known bleeding disorder or current use of anticoagulation

- History of or current skin disorder that will interfere with testosterone gel

- Unwilling to adhere to protocol-stated restrictions while in the study

Locations and Contacts

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, United States
Additional Information

Dedicated to basic and clinical research focused primarily on the male reproductive system

Related publications:

Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia in normal men. World Health Organization Task Force on methods for the regulation of male fertility. Lancet. 1990 Oct 20;336(8721):955-9.

Wu FC, Farley TM, Peregoudov A, Waites GM. Effects of testosterone enanthate in normal men: experience from a multicenter contraceptive efficacy study. World Health Organization Task Force on Methods for the Regulation of Male Fertility. Fertil Steril. 1996 Mar;65(3):626-36.

Anawalt BD, Bebb RA, Bremner WJ, Matsumoto AM. A lower dosage levonorgestrel and testosterone combination effectively suppresses spermatogenesis and circulating gonadotropin levels with fewer metabolic effects than higher dosage combinations. J Androl. 1999 May-Jun;20(3):407-14.

Zirkin BR, Santulli R, Awoniyi CA, Ewing LL. Maintenance of advanced spermatogenic cells in the adult rat testis: quantitative relationship to testosterone concentration within the testis. Endocrinology. 1989 Jun;124(6):3043-9.

Coviello AD, Matsumoto AM, Bremner WJ, Herbst KL, Amory JK, Anawalt BD, Sutton PR, Wright WW, Brown TR, Yan X, Zirkin BR, Jarow JP. Low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin maintains intratesticular testosterone in normal men with testosterone-induced gonadotropin suppression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;90(5):2595-602. Epub 2005 Feb 15.

Roth MY, Lin K, Amory JK, Matsumoto AM, Anawalt BD, Snyder CN, Kalhorn TF, Bremner WJ, Page ST. Serum LH correlates highly with intratesticular steroid levels in normal men. J Androl. 2010 Mar-Apr;31(2):138-45. doi: 10.2164/jandrol.109.008391. Epub 2009 Sep 24.

Trachtenberg J, Zadra J. Steroid synthesis inhibition by ketoconazole: sites of action. Clin Invest Med. 1988 Feb;11(1):1-5.

Nashan D, Knuth UA, Weidinger G, Nieschlag E. The antimycotic drug terbinafine in contrast to ketoconazole lacks acute effects on the pituitary-testicular function of healthy men: a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1989 May;120(5):677-81.

Pont A, Graybill JR, Craven PC, Galgiani JN, Dismukes WE, Reitz RE, Stevens DA. High-dose ketoconazole therapy and adrenal and testicular function in humans. Arch Intern Med. 1984 Nov;144(11):2150-3.

Van Tyle JH. Ketoconazole. Mechanism of action, spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, adverse reactions and therapeutic use. Pharmacotherapy. 1984 Nov-Dec;4(6):343-73. Review.

Soriano-Guillén L, Lahlou N, Chauvet G, Roger M, Chaussain JL, Carel JC. Adult height after ketoconazole treatment in patients with familial male-limited precocious puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jan;90(1):147-51. Epub 2004 Nov 2.

Harris KA, Weinberg V, Bok RA, Kakefuda M, Small EJ. Low dose ketoconazole with replacement doses of hydrocortisone in patients with progressive androgen independent prostate cancer. J Urol. 2002 Aug;168(2):542-5.

Herbst KL, Coviello AD, Page S, Amory JK, Anawalt BD, Bremner WJ. A single dose of the potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline suppresses gonadotropins and testosterone for 2 weeks in healthy young men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Dec;89(12):5959-65.

Starting date: January 2011
Last updated: March 3, 2014

Page last updated: August 20, 2015

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